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Second Nine Weeks

8-The Renaissance, Scientific Revolution & Reformation.
9-Age of Exploration
10-Asia in Transition (China: Ming & Qing, Taiping Rebellion; Japan: Tokugawa & Shogunate; Europeans in Asia)
11-Muslim Empires (Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal)

12-The Age of Kings: Absolutism & The Enlightenment


Second Semester

Third Nine Weeks

1-Empires & Colonies in the Americas
2-The Age of Revolutions (1700's-1830): American & French Revolutions.
3-Latin American Wars for Independence / Revolutions

4-The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850).
5-The Age of "Isms" (Capitalism, Communism, Romanticism, Impressionism, Expressionism, Realism) & 6-Nationalism (Italy, Germany, the Balkans).
7-Imperialism (1850-1914) and Chinese Revolution (1911)


Fourth Nine Weeks

8-World War I (1914-18) & The Russian Revolution (1905-1941).
9-Interwar Years (1919-39)
10-WW II (1939-45)
11-The Cold War (1945-1990): West & East
12-The World Today (1991-Today).



I wanted to add some websites from other High Schools, with Study Guides and other resources:

AP European History                                                                                                                           AP World History

Horace Greeley HS, NY -- Ms. Pojer
The CAVE -- Mr. Treadwell

Chaffey HS, Ontario California--Mr. Steven Mercado
Bishop Verot HS, Florida -- Mr. J. Hamann
Bullard H.S., California -- Mr. Lloyd
Study Guides & Exams developed by New York High School

 

Mrs. Bond-Lamberty's 

Mr. Stanton's from Poolesville High School

Jay Harmon's

Mr. Burnett's

Dr. Murnane’s

 

 

==>Most of the definitions in these Lecture Notes (Vocabulary, Leaders) and hyperlinks to obtain extra information, came from / belong to Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. The recommended videos are from YouTube, Crash Course, Annenberg Foundation, Study.com / former Educational Portal, Khan Academy, and the History Channel). Many of the Flowcharts are from the Flowofhistory.com, by John "Chris" Butler<== Thanks to all of them for sharing!


8-Renaissance, Scientific Revolution & Reformation

 

Topic 7:  The Rise of Western European Intellectual Movements 

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

                                (Standard 4:  Analyze the causes and events, and effects of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Age of Exploration)

Humanities           (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.W.4.1:  Identify the economic and political causes for the rise of the Italian city-states (Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome and Venice).                                                                                                                                                                    

SS.912.W.4.2:  Recognize major influences on the architectural, artistic, and literary developments of Renaissance Italy (Classical, Byzantine, Islamic, Western European).                                                                                                                                                                     

SS.912.W.4.3:  Identify the major artistic, literary, and technological contributions of individuals during the Renaissance.                                                                                                                                                                     

SS.912.W.4.4:  Identify characteristics of Renaissance humanism in works of art.                                                                                                                                                                     

SS.912.W.4.5:  Describe how ideas from the Middle Ages and Renaissance led to the Scientific Revolution.                                                                                                                                                                       

SS.912.W.4.6:  Describe how scientific theories and methods of the Scientific Revolution challenged those of the early classical and medieval periods.                                                                                                                                                                       

SS.912.W.4.7:  Identify criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church by individuals such as Wycliffe, Hus and Erasmus and their impact on later reformers.                                                                                                                                                                       

SS.912.W.4.8:  Summarize religious reforms associated with Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Henry VIII, and John of Leyden and the effects of the Reformation on Europe.                 

SS.912.W.4.9:  Analyze the Roman Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation in the forms of the Counter and Catholic Reformation.

SS.912.W.4.10:  Identify the major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.

Essential Content:

Vocabulary/Identification:   Renaissance, Milan, Venice, Florence, Rome, Medici Family, Humanism., Machiavelli, Perspective, Leonard Da Vinci, Gutenberg, Erasmus, Thomas Moore, William Shakespeare, Fleming, Michelangelo, Jan van Eyck, Albert Durer, Fresco, Indulgences, predestination, reformation, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin, Hugenots, Anglican, 95 thesis, Counter-Reformation, Ignatius of Loyola, zwinglian, Ana Baptiste, Council of Trent, Jesuits, city-state, scientific revolution, helio-centric theory, roger bacon, Copernicus, Keppler, Galileo, scientific method, Newton, Vesalius, Descartes, Robert Boyle.

 

       ==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

History Videos (Free)

-Youtube:

Renaissance: Overview (2 minutes): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mgSPiAiBjU
All About the Renaissance (15 minutes): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiTyTx13Clo
The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance PBS Documentary (55 minutes):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBlGkTTol9E

Renaissance Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVQBVE9BzYk
Leonardo Da Vinci: Universal Genius BBC Documentary (9 Minutes): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pir_H7kf_JU
Divine Michelangelo (BBC, 2 Parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6T7qypR5n0c

The Scientific Revolution (13 minutes)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR3rcWZmvws
Turning Points in History: The Scientific Revolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hodYUDDfsY
Turning Point in History: The Reformation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gi5qR7tflG0&feature=related
The Protestant Reformation (3 parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h025a8GFlyI

-Study.com / Educational Portal (each video is only 4 minutes): Earn College Credits!!

1 The Renaissance Timeline: Events Overview
2 The Italian Renaissance and Italy's Transformation
3 Humanism in the Renaissance: Recognizing the Beauty of the Individual
4 Renaissance Art: Artists, Paintings, Sculptures & Architecture
5 Leonardo Da Vinci: Biography
6 Michelangelo: Biography and Works
7 The Northern Renaissance
8 The House of Medici: Rise and Fall of a Banking Family
9 How the Printing Press Changed the World
10 The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin
11 Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
12 Machiavelli and Lessons of the Italian Wars
13 Reconquista and Spanish Inquisition
14 The Italian Wars and Weakening of Papal Authority
15 Mercenaries and the Sack of Rome

16 The Birth of Parliament: Monarchs vs. the Aristocracy
17 The Renaissance Economy: The Rise of Banking
18 The Formation of Modern Nation States


 

1 Tycho Brahe and Copernicus Take On the Known Universe
2 Galileo, the Telescope & The Church
3 Francis Bacon: History, Ideas and Legacy
4 Rene Descartes and the Union of Religion and Philosophy

1 The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices
2 The Renaissance Heresies of Wycliffe and Hus
3 Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists
4 Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation
5 The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe
6 Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation
7 England and the Tudors at the End of the Wars of the Roses
8 Henry VIII: The Anglican Church
9 The Six Wives of Henry VIII: Facts and History
10 Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth: Catholic vs. Anglican
11 Queen Elizabeth I and England's Golden Age
12 Introduction to Shakespeare: Life and Works
13 The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation
14 The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots
15 The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars
16
Westphalia and Peace of Augsburg: States' Rise to Sovereignty
17 Cardinal Richelieu and his Influence on the World
18 The 30 Years War: Catholics vs. Protestants
 and Decline of the Empire
19 The Thirty Years? War & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary & Significance
20 Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society

21 The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation
22 Religious Warfare Across Europe During the Reformation
23 The Netherlands During the Reformation

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

The Renaissance: Was it a Thing?: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vufba_ZcoR0

 

-Khan Academy (History)

Protestant Reformation: Setting the stage (part 1): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/1500-1600-Renaissance-Reformation/protestant-reformation/v/protestant-reformation-1
Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther (part 2): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/1500-1600-Renaissance-Reformation/protestant-reformation/v/introduction-to-the-protestant-reformation-Luther-2-of-4
Protestant Reformation: Varieties of Protestantism (part 3): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/1500-1600-Renaissance-Reformation/protestant-reformation/v/introduction-to-the-protestant-reformation-3-of-4
Protestant Reformation: The Counter-Reformation (part 4): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/1500-1600-Renaissance-Reformation/protestant-reformation/v/introduction-to-the-protestant-reformation--the-counter-reformation--4-of-4

-Annenberg Learner (28 minutes each)

1-The National Monarchies: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=842
2-The Renaissance and the Age of Discovery: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=843
3-The Reformation: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=845
4-The Rise of the Middle Class: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=846
5-The Wars of Religion: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=847
6-
The Rise of the Trading Cities: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=848

Art History Videos (Free)

-Otis College Art History:

Early Renaissance - Tuscany: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CF7BtPWJ8wM
Italian Renaissance - Florence: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s29QCZCCJ-g
High Renaissance - Rome: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-FlyGpMXdM
Iconography in Northern Renaissance Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiYmkMgBECk
Mannerism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ombPQ6egLE8

-Khan Academy:

 

 

VOCABULARY

1-BLACK DEATH: The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Thought to have started in China, it traveled along the Silk Road and had reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, probably carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships, it spread throughout the Mediterranean and Europe. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe's population, reducing the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as having created a series of religious, social and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover. The plague returned at various times, killing more people, until it left Europe in the 19th century.

2-RENAISSANCE: REBIRTH IN FRENCH. THE DISCOVERY BY SCHOLARS (HUMANISTS), ARTISTS, EXPLORERS, AND SCIENTISTS OF MANY NEW LAWS, FORMS OF ART AND LITERATURE, NEW RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL IDEAS, NEW LANDS (AMERICA). THE CLASSICAL STYLES AND THEMES WERE USED IN ARCHITECTURE AND ART: REBIRTH OF CLASSICAL CULTURE. RARE PERIOD OF GENIUS.

3-HUMANISM: INTEREST IN THE LIFE AND ACTIVITIES OF HUMAN BEINGS. IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND ACHIEVE HAPPINESS ON THIS EARTH INSTEAD OF IN HEAVEN AFTER DEATH.

4-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: The Scientific Revolution is an era associated primarily with the 16th and 17th centuries during which new ideas and knowledge in physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed medieval and ancient views of nature and laid the foundations for modern science.

5-KNOWLEDGEABLE: HAVING KNOWLEDGE OR UNDERSTANDING IN/OF MANY DIFFERENT AREAS (GREEK, LATIN, ART, SCIENCE), HAVING FINE MANNERS, SOCIAL SKILLS, AND BEING PHYSICALLY STRONG AND ATHLETIC. IDEALLY EDUCATED PERSON.

6-TUTORS: PRIVATE TEACHERS.

7-FRESCO: PICTURE PAINTED ON A WET PLASTER.

8-MASTERPIECE: A creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill or workmanship.

9-PATRONS: WEALTHY CUSTOMERS AND SUPPORTERS OF ARTISTS.

10-REALISM: Realism in the arts concerns the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life.

11-SCHOLARS:  Scientists, university professors.

12-CLASSIC: The word classic means something that is a perfect example of a particular style, something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality.

13-SCIENCE: "TO KNOW" IN LATIN.

14-SCIENTIFIC METHOD: THE SEARCH FOR THE TRUTH USING EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS.
14.1-HYPOTHESIS: EDUCATED GUESS, THEORY.
14.2-EXPERIMENT: CONTROLLED TEST.
14.3-LAW: PREDICTABLE PATTERN IN SCIENCE.

15-ELLIPSE: OVAL FORM. PLANETS’ PATH.

16-EQUATION: MATHEMATICAL FORMULA.

17-INQUISITION: It was create by the Roman Catholic Church to "fight against heretics". It started in the 12th century, with the introduction of torture in the persecution of heresy. Inquisition practices were used also on offences against canon law other than heresy.

18-PENDULUM: A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element. The advantage of a pendulum for timekeeping is that it is a resonant device; it swings back and forth in a precise time interval dependent on its length, and resists swinging at other rates. From its invention in 1656 by Christian Huygens until the 1930s, the pendulum clock was the world's most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use

19-HELIOCENTRISM: The astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a stationary Sun at the center of the solar system. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. It was not until the 16th century that a fully predictive mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic monk Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution. In the following century, this model was elaborated and expanded by Johannes Kepler and supporting observations made using a telescope were presented by Galileo Galilei.

20-HERESY / HERETIC: A controversial change to a system of beliefs, especially in religion, that conflicts with established dogma. It is distinct from apostasy, which is the formal denunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is irreverence toward religion. Thousands were executed by the Catholic Church accused of heresy.

21-REFORMATION / REFORMER: The Protestant Reformation , also known as the Protestant Revolt", was led by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers" who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. This was encouraged by the series of events such as the black death or Great Schism, that led to the loss of people's faith in the church. This plus many other factors contributed to the growth of lay criticism in the church, and the creation of the Protestant Religion. The Catholics responded with a Counter-Reformation, led by the Jesuit order, which reclaimed large parts of Europe, such as Poland. In general, northern Europe, with the exception of Ireland and pockets of Britain, turned Protestant, and southern Europe remained Catholic, while fierce battles that turned into warfare took place in central Europe.

22-NINETY-FIFE THESES: The document was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences.

23-INDULGENCE: In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the Catholic Church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. The belief is that indulgences draw on the Treasury of Merit accumulated by Christ's superabundantly meritorious sacrifice on the cross and the virtues and penances of the saints. They are granted for specific good works and prayers. Indulgences replaced the severe penances of the early Church. More exactly, they replaced the shortening of those penances that was allowed at the intercession of those imprisoned and those awaiting martyrdom for the faith. Alleged abuses in selling and granting indulgences were a major point of contention when Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation (1517).

24-EXCOMMUNICATE: Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive, suspend or limit membership in a religious community. The word means putting [someone] out of communion. In some religions, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group. Excommunication may involve banishment, shunning, and shaming, depending on the religion, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community.

25-HUGUENOTS: The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Since the seventeenth century, people who formerly would have been called Huguenots have instead simply been called French Protestants, a title suggested by their German co-religionists, the Calvinists. French Protestants were inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s, and they were called Huguenots by the 1560s. By the end of the 17th century, roughly 200,000 Huguenots had been driven from France during a series of religious persecutions.

26-ANGLICANISM: The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning the English Church. Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. The great majority of Anglicans are members of churches which are part of the international Anglican Communion. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid 16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Reformed Protestantism. Anglicans are the Protestants of England, where the king was also the leader of the Church. King Henry VIII played a mayor role in the establishment of the Anglican Church of England.

27-ANABAPTISTE: Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, and their direct descendants, particularly the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites. Anabaptists rejected conventional Christian practices such as wearing wedding rings, taking oaths, and participating in civil government. They adhered to a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount and Believer's baptism. The name Anabaptist is derived from the Latin term anabaptista, or "one who baptizes over again", in reference to practicing adult baptism, because, as a new faith, they baptized converts who already had been baptized (as infants) in the older Christian churches. Anabaptists required that candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so refused baptism to infants. As a result, Anabaptists were heavily persecuted during the 16th century and into the 17th by both other Protestants and Roman Catholics.

28-COUNTER-REFORMATION: The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) denotes the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:

  1. Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration
  2. Religious orders
  3. Spiritual movements
  4. Political dimensions

Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition.

29-CENSORSHIP: Censorship is the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the general body of people as determined by a government, the Church, or other controlling body.

30-MISSIONARY: A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad to spread the ideas of the Catholic Church and to stop the ideas of the Reformation.

31-EDICT: An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. The Pope and various national leaders are currently the only persons who still issue edicts.

32-CONCORDAT: FORMAL AGREEMENT.

33-TITHE: INCOME TAX (1/10) PAID TO THE PARISH.

34-DEPICT: To render a representation of something, using words, sounds, images, or other means.

35-SCAFFOLD: A structure made of scaffolding, for workers to stand on while working on a building. An elevated platform on which a criminal is executed.

36-CHISEL: A cutting tool consisting of a slim oblong block of metal with a sharp wedge or bevel formed on one end. It may be provided with a handle at the other end, which is generally perpendicular to, but occasionally parallel to the cutting edge of the tool, depending upon its intended use. It is used to remove parts of stone, wood or metal by placing the sharp edge against the material to be cut and pushing or pounding the other end with a hammer, or mallet. The cutting edge of a chisel is most frequently straight, but may be curved or otherwise shaped (v-shaped, for example), to suit the characteristics of the material being worked, or the shape to be achieved by the chisel's use.

37-GENIUS: Someone possessing extraordinary intelligence or skill; especially somebody who has demonstrated this by a creative or original work in science, music, art etc.

38-MILAN: Milan  is the second-largest city in Italy, the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. Milan became one of the most prosperous Italian cities during the High Middle Ages, playing a primary role in the Lombard League. Later Milan became the capital city of the Duchy of Milan, being ruled by the Visconti, the Sforza, the Spanish and the Austrians.

39-VENICE: A city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. One of the main centers of the Renaissance. The Republic of Venice was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain and spice trade) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period.

40-FLORENCE: "The Athens of Italy". The capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. The city lies on the River Arno; it is known for its history and its importance in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, especially for its art and architecture and, more generally, for its cultural heritage. A centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, Florence is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance. A turbulent political history included periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, religious and republican revolution.

41-ROME: Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city. After the Middle Ages, Rome was ruled by popes such as Alexander VI and Leo X, who transformed the city into one of the major centers of the Italian Renaissance, along with Florence. The current version of St Peter's Basilica was built and the Sistine Chapel was painted by Michelangelo. Famous artists and architects, such as Bramante, Bernini and Raphael resided for some time in Rome, contributing to its Renaissance and Baroque architecture.

42-PERSPECTIVE: The way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes; or their dimensions and the position of the eye relative to the objects. Sense of depth in a painting.

43-PREDESTINATION: Predestination, in Calvinistic theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God. John Calvin interpreted biblical predestination to mean that God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others. Explanations of predestination often seek to address the so-called "paradox of free will", that God's omniscience is seemingly incompatible with human free will.


ITALIAN CATHEDRALS

1-St. Mark's Basilica: The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark (officially known in Italian as the Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco and commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica) is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. It lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace.

2-Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore: The cathedral church (Duomo) of Florence, Italy, begun in 1296 to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.

3-St. Peter's Cathedral: The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world. It is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom"

 

LEADERS / OUTSTANDING PEOPLE

1-GIOTTO (1266-1337): DANTE’S FRIEND. TRANSITIONAL (MEDIEVAL-RENAISSANCE) PAINTER: FLORENCE.

2-BRUNELLESCHI: Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for inventing linear perspective and designing the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also included bronze artwork, architecture (churches and chapels, fortifications, a hospital, etc), mathematics, engineering (hydraulic machinery, clockwork mechanisms, theatrical machinery, etc) and even ship design. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy.

3-LORENZO GHIBERTI (1378–1455):  Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence Cathedral, named by Michelangelo the "Gates of Paradise".

4-DONATELLO (1386-1466): Donato di Niccolň di Betto Bardi was a painter and sculptor from Florence.

5-JAN van EYCK (1390-1441): Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century.  van Eyck's reputation and technical ability grew, mostly from his innovative approaches towards the handling and manipulating of oil paint.

6-DONATO BRAMANTE (1444-1514):  Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Alexander VI appointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the spot where Peter was crucified.

7-SANDRO BOTTICELLI (1444-1510): Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine school under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later as a "golden age". Among his best known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.

8-LEONARDO da VINCI (1452-1519): Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon.

9-ALBERT DURER (1471-1528): German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since.

10-MICHELANGELO (1475-1564): Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. His versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci. Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and ever since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all time. One of the recurring characteristics of his works is their "monumentalism". Three of his best-known works as an sculptor: the Pietŕ, the David, and the Moses.  Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential works in fresco in the history of Western art: the scenes from the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. At the age of 74, he became the  new architect of St. Peter's Basilica.

11-RAPHAEL (1483-1520): Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino ,better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at 37, a large body of his work remains. Many of his works are found in the Apostolic Palace of The Vatican, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. His best known work is The School of Athens, located also in the Vatican.

12-TITIAN (1488-1576): Tiziano Vecelli was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno, in the Republic of Venice. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars" (recalling the famous final line of Dante's Paradiso), Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects.

13-ANDREA PALLADIO (1508-1580): He was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him world wide recognition.

14-TINTORETTO (1518-1594):  Jacopo Comin, better known as Tintoretto, was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School.

15-MEDICI FAMILY: THE MOST IMPORTANT AND RICH FAMILY IN FLORENCE DURING THE RENAISSANCE; POLITICAL LEADERS, BANKERS, PATRONS OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. FOUR POPES WERE MEDICI.

15.1-COSIMO de' MEDICI (1389–1464): The first of the Medici political dynasty, rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" ("il Vecchio") and "Cosimo Pater Patriae" (father of the nation); Lorenzo's grandfather.

15.2-LORENZO de MEDICI (1449-1492):  Ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico) by contemporary Florentines, he was a diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. Perhaps what he is most known for is his contribution to the art world, giving large amounts of money to artists so they could create master works of art. His life coincided with the high point of the early Italian Renaissance; his death marked the end of the Golden Age of Florence.

16-BORGIA FAMILY: A European papal family of Spanish origin that became prominent during the Renaissance. The Borgias were patrons of the arts, and their support allowed many artists of the Renaissance to realize their potential. The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 1400s and 1500s.

16.1-POPE ALEXANDER VI (1431-1503): Previously known as Rodrigo Borgia, was pope (bishop of Rome) from 1492 until his death in 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname Borgia became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his papacy. His reputation rests more on his considerable skills as a diplomat, politician and civil administrator rather than as a pastor, although regarding the latter he was no more or less effective than any of the other renaissance pontiffs.

16.2-ALSO SEE : LUCREZIA BORGIA & CESARE BORGIA

17-GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA (1452–1498): was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory and calls for Christian renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. This seemed confirmed when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and threatened Florence. While Savonarola intervened with the king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar’s urging, established a popular republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the center of world Christianity and "richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever", he instituted a puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth. In 1495 when Florence refused to join Pope Alexander VI’s Holy League against the French, Savonarola was summoned to Rome. He disobeyed and further defied the pope by preaching under a ban, highlighting his campaign for reform with processions, bonfires of the vanities and pious theatricals. In retaliation, the Pope excommunicated him and threatened to place the city under an interdict.

18-DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321): A major Italian poet. His Divine Comedy, called Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. Dante is also called "the Father of the Italian language".

19-FRANCESCO PETRARCA (1304-1374): He is known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar, poet and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century,  Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the Dark Ages.

20-GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO (1313-1375): An Italian author and poet, a friend, student, and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist and the author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women, and his poetry in the Italian vernacular. Boccaccio is particularly notable for his dialogue, of which it has been said that it surpasses in verisimilitude that of virtually all of his contemporaries.

21-GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343-1400): Considered the Father of English literature, was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey.  Among his many works, which include The Book of the Duchess, the House of Fame, the Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde, he is best known today for The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer is a crucial figure in developing the legitimacy of the vernacular English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latin.

22-JOHANN GUTENBERG (1400-1468): GERMAN INVENTOR (THE PRINTING PRESS - 1440 - USING MOVEABLE METAL TYPES).

23-ERASMUS (1466-1536): "THE PRINCE OF THE HUMANISTS". Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was an early proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists"; he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works.

24-MACHIAVELLI (1469-1527): Niccolň di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He was a founder of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He wrote his masterpiece, The Prince, after the Medici had recovered power and he no longer held a position of responsibility in Florence.

25-BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE (1478-1529): He was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author. In 1528, the year before his death, the book for which Castiglione is most famous, The Book of the Courtier (Il Libro del Cortegiano), was published in Venice. The book, in dialog form, is an elegiac portrait of the exemplary court of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro of Urbino during Castiglione's youthful stay there at the beginning of the sixteenth century and a description of what constituted an ideal Renaissance gentleman. The book is Castiglione's memorial tribute to life at Urbino and to his friendships with the other members of the court, all of whom went on to have important positions and many of whom had died by the time the book was published, giving poignancy to their portrayals.

26-THOMAS MORE (1478-1535): Also known by Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. He was an important councilor to Henry VIII of England and, for three years toward the end of his life, Lord Chancellor. He is recognized as a saint within the Catholic Church and is commemorated by the Church of England as a 'Reformation martyr'. He was an opponent of the Protestant Reformation and in particular of Martin Luther and William Tyndale.

27-MIGUEL DE CERVANTES (1547-1616): Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra  was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes"). He was dubbed El Príncipe de los Ingenios ("The Prince of Wits").

28-WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616): He was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, two epitaphs, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.

29- PTOLEMY (2nd. CENTURY AD.): AUTHOR OF THE THEORY OF THE EARTH AS THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE (GEOCENTRISM). THIS IDEA LASTED 14 CENTURIES.

30-FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626): An English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He was extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism. His works established and popularized inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.

31- NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543): POLISH ASTRONOMER WHO CHALLENGED PTOLEMY’S THEORY SAYING THAT THE EARTH REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN. HE DID NOT EXPERIMENTS BUT HE JUST USED LOGICAL THINKING AND GEOMETRY.

32-ANDREAS VERSALIUS (1514-1564): FLEMISH DOCTOR WHO STUDIED HUMAN BODY USING CORPSES. HE VIOLATED THE CHURCH RULES.

33-WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603): ENGLISH DOCTOR AND PHYSICIST WHO STUDIED MAGNETISM AND STATIC ELECTRICITY.

34-GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642): THE MOST IMPORTANT SUPPORTER OF COPERNICUS’ THEORY. TEACHER OF MATHEMATICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PADUA. HE BUILT A TELESCOPE, DISCOVERED THE ROUGH SURFACE OF THE MOON, THE SUN SPOTS, AND JUPITER’S MOONS. HE EXPERIMENTED ON GRAVITY. THE MEDICIS SUPPORTED HIS WORK. GALILEO WAS FORCED BY THE INQUISITION TO DENY HIS DISCOVERY.

35-JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630): GERMAN ASTRONOMER. AFTER MANY EXPERIMENTS AND USING MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS, HE PROVED COPERNICUS’ THEORY.

36-WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657): ENGLISH DOCTOR WHO STUDIED THE HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, AND BLOOD CIRCULATION.

37-RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650): FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER. HE CREATED ANALYTIC GEOMETRY (REPRESENT POINTS IN SPACE USING A GRAPH. EVERY LINE ON A GRAPH COULD BE REPRESENTED BY AN EQUATION).

38-ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691): He was a 17th century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method.

39-ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727): ENGLISH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHYSICIST. HE DISCOVERED THAT THE WHITE SUNLIGHT IS COMPOSED FOR ALL THE COLORS AND EXPLAINED WHY PLANETS REMAIN IN THEIR ORBITS: FORCE OF GRAVITY ( G = 9,75 M/SEG2 GF = Gm1.m2 GF: GRAVITY FORCE R2 R: DISTANCE BETWEEN THE OBJECTS).

40-GABRIEL FAHRENHEIT (1686-1736): HE MADE THE FIRST MERCURY THERMOMETER IN 1714.

Click to see PowerPoints


The Black Death: 1300s


Italian Renaissance

 

     
Saint Mark's Basilica (1071), Venice. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. It lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace. St Mark's Campanile (Campanile di San Marco in Italian) is the bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy, located in the Piazza San Marco. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city. The campanile (1156-1173) was restored in 1514. The current tower was reconstructed in its present form in 1912 after the collapse of 1902.

 

 

Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (1436), Florence

   


St. Peter's Basilica (1626), Vatican City


Flight into Egypt                                                                           Lamentation
Giotto di Bondone
(1267-1337), painter

Doors of Florence Baptistery, by Lorenzo Ghiberti, known as the "Gates to Paradise". It took Ghiberti 21 years (1401-1422) to complete these doors. These gilded bronze doors consist of twenty-eight panels, with twenty panels depicting the life of Christ from the New Testament. The eight lower panels show the four evangelists and the Church Fathers Saint Ambrose, Saint Jerome, Saint Gregory and Saint Augustine. The panels are surrounded by a framework of foliage in the door case and gilded busts of prophets and sibyls at the intersections of the panels. Originally installed on the east side, they were later moved to the north side. They are described by the art historian Antonio Paolucci as "the most important event in the history of Florentine art in the first quarter of the 15th century"

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475-February 18, 1564), one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance.
 
La Pietŕ (1499)                                                                      Moses (1513-1515)

 
David, a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504


God creating Adam, detail (Sistine Chapel)


Michelangelo painted 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) of the Sistine Chapel ceiling between 1508 and 1512. Twenty years later, he also painted The
Last Judgment, the mural on the altar wall from 1534 to 1541.

 

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452-1519): He was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.

         
Self Portrait                                                              The Vitruvian Man, 1487
 
Mona Lisa or La Gioconda                                                              The Last Supper (1495-98)
Leonardo da Vinci began painting the Mona Lisa in 1503 and, according to Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, left it unfinished...." He is thought to have continued to work on it for three years after he moved to France and to have finished it shortly before he died in 1519.

 Raphael Sanzio (March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520). He was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at 37, a large body of his work remains. Many of his works (frescoes) are found in the Vatican Palace: the Stanze di Raffaello or Raphael's Rooms, the central and the largest work of his career. He is also known for his Madonnas and portraits.

Raphael's Rooms in the Vatican (Click on each painting to see the details)

General view (I) General view (II) East wall South wall West wall North wall Ceiling Name and scenes (from left side to right)
Room of the Segnatura: 1. The School of Athens, 2. Cardinal and Theological Virtues, 3.Disputation of the Holy Sacrament, 4. The Parnassus and 5. Ceiling.
8 Estancia de Heliodoro (Vista general I).jpg Room of Heliodorus: 1. The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, 2. The Mass at Bolsena,3. The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila, 4. Deliverance of Saint Peter and 5. Ceiling.
Room of the Fire in the Borgo: 1. Battle of Ostia, 2. The Fire in the Borgo, 3. The Coronation of Charlemagne, 4. The Oath of Leo III and 5. Ceiling.
Room of Constantine: 1. The Vision of the Cross, 2. The Battle of the Milvian Bridge, 3. The Baptism of Constantine, 4. The Donation of Constantine and 5. Ceiling.

 


The School of Athens, one of the most famous paintings by Raphael, painted between 1510 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello (Raphael's Rooms).

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (March 1, 1445-May 17, 1510): He was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later as a "golden age", a thought, suitably enough, he expressed at the head of his Vita of Botticelli. Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Among his best known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.



The Birth of Venus (1486)


Primavera / Spring (1482)


The Arnolfini Portrait (1434), by Jan van Eyck (1395-1441), one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.

Use of Perspective or sense of depth, another contribution of the Renaissance


German  goldsmith Johann Gutenberg invented the Printing Press around 1439.

 
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547-April 22, 1616), author of Don Quixote


William Shakespeare (26 April 1564-23 April 1616)

 

 
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564-8 January 1642), Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.


Mechanical Clocks in Europe, 1300-1500s


La Reconquista (1492)

Discoveries, Innovations, and New Ideas.

Perspective, Oil Paint, Frescoes, Chiaroscuro, Writing in Vernacular languages, Heliocentric Theory, the Telescope, the Pendulum, Mechanical Clocks, Humanism, the Scientific Method, the Thermometer, Analytic Geometry, Calculus, Gravity Theory, Printing Press, Firearms & Cannons, Capitalism, Protestant Reformation, Political Science, the "New World" (America) was "discovered".

European Revival: 1200-1500 (Renaissance)

Latin Christians were more inclined to fight with each other than to join forces for any common good. They had no head that all will obey. The numerous kingdoms and principalities of Western Europe had never achieved unity. From 1200 to 1500 they will experience times of unusual progress: splendid architecture, institutions of higher learning, cultural achievements, more powerful weapons, and more unified monarchies. Economic competition, the pursuit of success, and the effective use of borrowed technologies and learning (from the Islamic world and China) made all this possible. They called themselves “Latins”.

Population & Agriculture

Most Europeans were serfs: nine out of ten people were farmers. Each noble had between 13 and 30 peasant families working for him in return for the use of the land. Despite numerous holidays, peasants worked long hours and half of the fruits of their labor went to the lord. Women were subordinated to men. Poverty increased because inefficient farming methods, social inequality, and population growth.  Population in Europe in 1300 was about 80 million. It grew significantly during 1100-1345 thanks to the reviving economy. The average life expectancy for a European was 30 to 35 years. New technique in northern Europe increased the farmland available: Three-field system (crops on two-thirds of land and use the third to plant oats to rejuvenate soil and feed plow-horses (more efficient than oxen). Draining swamps and clearing forests also brought more lands under cultivation. Looking for lands to settle, Germans, members of the Order of Teutonic Knights, moved to the eastern Baltic, later called Prussia.

An unusually cold winter provoked the Great Famine of 1315-17.

The Black Death, which begun in Central Asia and spread to Europe during the 1340s, caused the deaths of 75 million people worldwide, approximately 25–50 million of which occurred in Europe, which represented around 35% of Europe's population. It’s now believed that the Black Death was a combination of two diseases: anthrax and bubonic plague. Because of these massive deaths, some people became more religious while others turned to reckless enjoyment. The Black Death trigged social changes. Skilled and manual laborers demanded higher pay and peasants rose up against wealthy nobles and churchmen, looting castles and killing people. Serfdom disappeared in Western Europe as a result of all this. Free peasants used their higher wages to buy land and work for themselves. In urban areas employers had to raise wages too and Guilds reduced the period of apprenticeship.

Industry & Technology

 

Mining, metalworking, and the use of mechanical energy expanded significantly. Mills powered by water or wind had long been common in the Islamic world; now, Europeans learned to use them. Watermills (England & France many rivers) and Windmills (dry areas: Spain & northern Europe). Waterpower supported the expansion of iron making to produce armors, nails, horseshoes, and tools. Techniques for deep mining developed in Central Europe and spread to the west.

Pollution of the rivers was the negative effect of urban tanneries, combined with human wastes and runoff from slaughterhouses. Deforestation resulted from the massive cut of trees for building ships and growing cities, as well as for clearing forests to make room for farming. Glass and iron industries also consumed great quantities of charcoal.

Cities

By the later Middle Ages wealthy commercial centers stood all along the Mediterranean, Baltic, and Atlantic. Prosperity was visible in the impressive new churches, guild halls, and residences. It was the result of the growth of trade and manufacturing. The cities of northern Italy benefited from their maritime trade with the east. In northern Europe, commercial cities in the County of Flanders also created a major network of trade.

Italian Eastern Mediterranean trade became stronger when Venice took advantage of the assault against Constantinople in 1204, conquering Crete and expanding its trade around the Black Sea. Mongol expansion opened trade routes from Europe to China (See Marco Polo). Even after Mongol decline, Venetian merchants continued to send their galleys to Constantinople to buy goods from Asia to sell in Europe. Like Venice, Genoa also established colonies on the eastern Mediterranean and around the Black Sea.
 

In northern Europe an association of trading cities was created: the Hanseatic League, which traded in the Baltic, with Russia and England. The Flemish towns of Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres were famous for manufacturing fine cloth, using raw wool from England. These cities offered people more social freedom than rural areas. German cities were independent. Others held special royal charters, excepting them from the authority of local nobles. This allowed them to change to market conditions more quickly than those under imperial authorities. Anyone living in charter cities for over a year might claim freedom. Jews were welcomed here for their skills.
 

Even when Jews where under the protection of the church, they were subject to discrimination and violence. They were blamed for the Black Death, supposedly poisoning the wells: many were tortured and burnt. Jews were frequently accused of sorcery and witchcraft. Only in the papal city of Rome Jews were undisturbed. Some tried to convert them to Christianity, even baptizing their children against the will of the parents; Tomas Aquinas and the pope opposed this practice. Because they were not bound by church laws against usury, Jews were important moneylenders. Jews were not able to bear witness against Christians. Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim rule. In 1492, they were expelled from Spain by the order of the King and Queen.
 

Trade Fairs appeared along the route from Flanders to northern Italy, the most important of which was located in Champagne. When this territory came under the control of the king of France, merchants from every nation received safe conducts, promoting international fairs in the region.
 

In the late 1200,s English tax policies made more profitable to manufacture their wool into cloth than exporting it to Flanders. They hired Flemish textile specialists and acquired spinning wheels and other devices. England became an exporter of cloth competing w/ Flanders. Florence also became a center for high-quality cloth making. The members of the Medici family were bank operators, supported the manufacture of cloth, were patrons of the arts, and controlled the government of the city. Europeans learned and started to manufacture their own silk, cotton textiles, glassware, mirrors, jewelry, and paper that previously they had to buy from the east. By 1500 the greatest banking family in Europe was the Fuggers of Augsburg.
 

Guilds were associations of craft specialists. They dominated civil life in the cities, regulated the business practices of its members and the prices of their products. Guilds trained apprentices and promoted their interests with the city government. They denied membership to outsiders, especially to Jews. Only men were accepted as full members; women may join as wives, widows, or daughters of male members.

A new class of wealthy merchant-bankers appeared, operating on a vast scale lending money, providing checking accounts, creating shareholding companies, and investing in growing industries. They also took care of the transmission to the pope of funds known as Pete’s pence, a collection taken up annually in every church. They also lend money to the rulers (pay for wars and lavish courts).
 

Master builders were in great demand in the thriving cities, where the Gothic Cathedrals (pointed arches, external / flying buttresses, giant windows of brilliantly colored stained glass, and high towers and spires) were the wonders of this period.

Mechanical clocks, invented by craftsmen of the Song Dynasty centuries earlier, became –for the first time everywhere- a regular part of urban life in Western European cities.

Learning, Art, and Literature.

The growing cities were home to intellectuals, artists, and universities after 1200. In the 1350’s, the pace of expanding cultural life quickened starting the often called Renaissance, which began in northern Italy. The Italian Renaissance was a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600. Some of the “lost knowledge” of the Greek and Arab world (which is going to feed the Renaissance) came into the Latin West through the recapture of southern Italy from the Byzantines, and Sicily and Toledo from the Muslims.

Italian
Renaissance literature includes such figures as the
humanists Petrarch (the sonnets of The Canzoniere), Boccaccio (the tales of The Decameron), and Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, etc. ), the writers Dante Aligheri (the Divine Comedy**), Geoffrey Chaucer (the Canterbury Tales), Baldasare da Castiglione (The Book of the Courtier), Ludovico Ariosto (Mad Orlando) and Torquato Tasso (Jerusalem Delivered) and prose authors such as Machiavelli (The Prince). Around 1450, three technical improvements revolutionalized printing: movable pieces of type consisting of individual letters, new ink suitable for printing on paper, and the printing press of Johann Gutenberg (a mechanical device that pressed inked type onto sheets of paper). By 1500 at least 10 million printed copies had issued forth from presses in 238 towns in Western Europe. This was a major contribution to the spread of knowledge and culture.

Italian Renaissance painting exercised a dominant influence on Western painting for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Giotto (mosaic of the Navicella, frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, etc.), Michelangelo (David, Moses, Pieta, frescos of the Sistine Chapel, etc.), Raphael (Portrait of Pope Julius II , The Madonna and Child, The School of Athens, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, etc.), Botticelli (The Birth of Venus, The Annunciation, La Primavera, etc.) Titian (Flora, Bacchus and Ariadne, The Venus of Urbino, Mars, Venus, and Amor, etc.), Leonardo da Vinci (Vitruvian Man, Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, Lady with an Ermine, Portrait of Ginevra de'Benci, etc.), and Jan van Eyck (who was among the first using linseed oil instead of diluted egg yolk to mix with colored pigments to paint) and the same is true for architecture, with Andrea Palladio and works such as Florence Cathedral and St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The patronage of the wealthy merchants and bankers fostered this artistic growth.

Before 1100, Byzantine and Islamic scholarship surpassed scholarship in Latin Europe. The Dominicans and Franciscans contributed many talented professors to the growing number of new independent (charters) colleges created after 1200. It was in Western Europe where these modern universities, degree-granting corporations, specialized in multidisciplinary research and advance teaching, were created for the first time in the world. Between 1300 and 1500 sixty (60) new universities joined the twenty (20) existing institutions of higher learning. Guilds of professors were created . Students who passed the exams at the end of their apprenticeship received a diploma or “license”. Students who completed a longer training and defended a scholarly treatise became “masters” or “doctors”. All courses were taught in Latin and each university was famous in a particular field: Bologna: Law, Montpellier and Salerno: Medicine, Paris and Oxford: Theology. Theology was specially important because many students were destined for ecclesiastical careers. Many tried to reconcile reason (Aristotle & Avicena) with faith: Scholasticism (the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West during the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries). The most notable scholastic work was the Summa Theologica (1267-1273), by Thomas Aquinas, a brilliant Dominican priest, professor of theology at the University of Paris.

Renaissance humanism
was an intellectual movement that reformed secondary education in Europe. Beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. Humanism described a curriculum — the studia humanitatis — comprising grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history as studied via classical authors. The early beliefs of humanism were that, although God created the universe, it was humans that developed and industrialized it.

Politics, Wars, New Monarchies

In 1200, knights were still the backbone of western European fighting forces. European feudalism, based on land in exchange for loyalty and military service were still the predominant socioeconomic and political characteristic of this part of the continent. Kings, nobles, and the Church were constantly struggling for power. The emergence of independent trade cities, organizations like the Hanseatic League, the growing number and influence of wealthy merchants and bankers, and some military innovations changed everything.

Improved crossbows that could shoot metal-tipped arrows able to pierce helmets and light body armor, led to the hiring of professional crossbowmen. The English longbow could shoot farther and more rapidly than the crossbow. Firearms, based on the Chinese invention of gunpowder and cannons to shoot metal projectiles, completely changed the way wars were fought. Cannons were very effective in blasting holes through the heavy walls of medieval castles and cities. Hand-held firearms were able to pierce even the heaviest armor hastened the demise of armored knights. These reduced the role of nobles as providers of soldiers and knights and increased the power of kings who can now hire the armies to fight their wars, sometimes borrowing money from bankers and merchants and some other times taxing the land of their vassals or / and taxing merchants and cities. The Church also became a source of revenue, making “voluntary” contributions to a war effort.

When Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) asserted that divine law made the papacy superior to any king, King Philip IV of France (1285-1314) sent an army to arrest him, who died as part of the process. Then, Philip “organized” the election of a French pope, with residence at Avignon, in southern France. After the Great Western Schism (1378-1415), with papal claimants at Avignon and Rome, the conflict was solved returning the papal residence to Rome. The papacy regained its independence, but the Church lost political influence and power, and monarchs became more powerful. During the 1400’s, the English and French monarchs gained the right to appoint important ecclesiastical officials in their realms.

The English monarch was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215, limiting his authority. This was the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law. By 1500, Parliament had become a permanent part of English government.

After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, France ruled over the island. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) started because three consecutive French kings were not able to produce an heir and Edward III, son of Princess Isabella of France and king of England, laid claim to the French throne. At the beginning, the English occupied a vast territory in France. First use of artillery was in the Battle of Agincourt (1415), which was a major victory for the English. Joan of Arch helped the French to defeat the English, but was captured and burned at the stake in 1431. At the end, the French monarchy recovered control of its country.

Spain and Portugal became more centralized states as a result of the fighting against the Muslims in the Reconquest War, which advanced in waves: Toledo (1085), Cordova (1236), Seville (1248), Ceuta (1415), and Granada (1492). The marriage of Princess Isabella of Castille and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 led to the permanent union of their kingdoms into Spain. In 1492, just after expelling the last Muslim armies out of Granada, Christopher Columbus started his famous voyage and the Jews were expelled from Spain.

Contrasting the Renaissance and Later Middle Ages
 

Renaissance

Later Middle Ages

Philosophy:  Humanism – Emphasis on secular concerns due to rediscovery and study of ancient Greco-Roman culture.

Religion dominates Medieval thought.

Scholasticism: Thomas Aquinas – reconciles Christianity with Aristotelian science.

Ideal:

·        Virtù – Renaissance Man should be well-rounded (Castiglione)

Ideal:

·        Man is well-versed in one subject.

Literature:

·        Humanism; secularism

·        Northern Renaissance focuses also on writings of early church fathers

·        Vernacular (e.g. Petrarch, Boccacio)

·        Covered wider variety of subjects (politics, art, short stories)

·        Focused on the individual

·        Increased use of printing press; propaganda

Literature:

·        Based almost solely on religion.

·        Written in Latin

·        Church was greatest patron of arts and literature.

·        Little political criticism.

·        Hand-written

Religion:

·        The state is supreme to the church.

·        “New Monarchs” assert power over national churches.

·        Rise of skepticism

·        Renaissance popes worldly and corrupt

Religion:

·        Dominated politics; sought unified Christian Europe.

·        Church is supreme to the state.

·        Inquisition started in 1223; dissenters dealt with harshly

Sculpture:

·        Greek and Roman classical influences.

·        Free-standing (e.g. Michelangelo’s David)

·        Use of bronze (e.g. Donatello’s David)

Sculpture:

·        More gothic; extremely detailed.

·        Relief

Art:

·        Increased emphasis on secular themes.

·        Classic Greek and Roman ideals.

·        Use of perspective.

·        chiaroscuro

·        Increased use of oil paints.

·        Brighter colors

·        More emotion

·        Real people and settings depicted.

·        Patronized largely by merchant princes

·        Renaissance popes patronized renaissance art

Art:

·        Gothic style

·        Byzantine style dominates; nearly totally religious.

·        Stiff, 1-dimentional figures.

·        Less emotion

·        Stylized faces (faces look generic)

·        Use of gold to illuminate figures.

·        Lack of perspective.

·        Lack of chiaroscuro

·        Patronized mostly by the church

 

 

Architecture:

·        Rounded arches, clear lines; Greco-Roman columns

·        Domes (e.g. Il Duomo by Brunelleschi)

·        Less detailed

·        Focus on balance and form

Architecture:

·        Gothic style

·        Pointed arches; barrel vaults, spires

·        Flying buttresses

·        Elaborate detail

Technology:

·        Use of printing press

·        New inventions for exploration

Technology:

·        Depended on scribes

 

 Marriage and Family:

·        Divorce available in certain cases

·        More prostitution

·        Marriages based more on romance.

·        Woman was to make herself pleasing to the man (Castiglione)

·        Sexual double standard

·        Increased infanticide

Marriage and Family:

·        Divorce nonexistent

·        Marriages arranged for economic reasons.

·        Prostitution in urban areas

·        Ave. age for men: mid-late twenties

·        Avg. age for women: less than 20 years old.

·        Church encouraged cult of paternal care.

·        Many couples did not observe church regulations on marriage.

·        Manners shaped men to please women.

·        Relative sexual equality

Status of Women:

·        Legal status of women declined.

·        Most women not affected by Renaissance

·        Educated women allowed involvement but subservient to men.

·        Rape not considered serious crime.

 

Status of Women:

·        Legal status better than in Renaissance

Politics:

·        State is supreme over the church.

·        New Monarchs assert control over national churches.

·        Machiavelli

Politics:

·        Church is supreme over the state.

African slavery introduced.

Few blacks lived in Europe.

Exploration and expansion.

Crusades

 

The Reformation

 

  

Contrasting Protestant and Catholic Doctrine
 
Protestants
Catholic

Role of Bible emphasized

Bible + traditions of Middle Ages + papal pronouncements

"Priesthood of all believers" – all individuals equal before God. Sought clergy that preached.

Medieval view about special nature and role of the clergy.

Anglicans rejected pope’s authority – monarch 
          became Supreme Governor of the church.

Lutherans rejected authority of the pope but kept 
         bishops.

Most Calvinists governed church by ministers 
      and a group of elders, a system      
      called Presbyterianism.

Anabaptists rejected most forms of church 
     governance in favor of congregational 
     democracy. 

Medieval hierarchy: believers, priests, bishops and pope.

Most Protestants denied efficacy of some or all 
      of sacraments of the medieval church – the 
      Eucharist (communion) most controversial.

All seven sacraments 

Consubstantiation – Lutherans: bread and wine 
     did not change but believer realizes presence 
     of Christ is in the bread and wine. (Real 
     Presence)

Zwingli saw the event of communion as 
     only symbolic – memorial to the actions of 
     Christ, or thanksgiving for God’s grant of 
      salvation (main reason for break with Luther)

Transubstantiation – bread and wine retain 
     outward appearances but are transformed into 
     the body and blood of Christ.

Lutherans believed in Justification by faith – 
     salvation cannot be earned and a good life is 
     the fruit of faith.

Calvinsts: predestination; a good life could 
     provide some proof of predestined salvation – 
     "visible saints" or the "elect."

Salvation through living life according to Christian 
    beliefs and participating in the practices of the 
    church -- good works

Lutherans and Anglicans believed state controls 
    the Church.

Anabaptists believed church ignores the state.

Catholics and Calvinists believed church should 
     control and absorb the state – theocracy.

Services emphasized the sermon

Services emphasized the Eucharist


 

REFORMATION

POPES

1-BONIFACE VIII (1294-1303): REFUSED TO PAY TAXES TO KING PHILIP IV AND HE ARRESTED HIM (1303).

2-CLEMENT V (1305-1314): HE ACCEPTED TO PAY THE TAXES, DISSOLVED THE ORDER OF THE TEMPLAR KNIGHTS, AND MOVED TO FRENCH TERRITORY.

3-LEO X (1513-1521): THE RENAISSANCE POPE, SUPPORTER OF ARTS. THE SALES OF INDULGENCES. LUTHER’S SCHISM.

4-CLEMENT VII (1523-1534): PROBLEM WITH HENRY VIII.

5-PAUL III (1534-1549): COUNCIL OF TRENT. THE INQUISITION. THE SOCIETY OF JESUS (THE COUNTER-REFORMATION).

REFORMERS

6-JOHN WYCLIFFE (1323-1384): ENGLISH WHO CRITICIZED BISHOPS AND PRIESTS FOR NEGLECTING THEIR RELIGIOUS DUTIES AND BEING INTERESTED ONLY IN WEALTH AND POWER.

7-JOHN HUSS (1369-1415): CZECH. HE ASKED FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHURCH OFFICIALS IN BOHEMIA. HE WAS ARRESTED BY THE CHURCH AND BURNED AT THE STAKE.

8-MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546): GERMAN PROTESTANT. HE BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE SALVATION DEPENDS ON THEIR FAITH INSTEAD ON GOOD WORKS OR DEEDS, THAT THE BIBLE IS THE SOURCE OF RELIGIOUS TRUTH AND PEOPLE SHOULD READ IT BY THEMSELVES, THAT PRIEST AND POPE SHOULD NOT BE SPECIAL PEOPLE, THAT CEREMONIES AND RITUALS ARE NOT NECESSARY. HE WROTE THE NINETY-FIVE THESIS. POPE LEO X EXCOMMUNICATED HIM. GERMAN PRINCES PROTECTED HIM.

9-JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564): FRENCH PROTESTANT. HE BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE ARE BORN SINFUL AND THAT THERE ARE SPECIAL PERSONS, "THE ELECTED OF GOD" WHOSE MISSION IS TO GUIDE THE CHRISTIAN SOCIETY. HE HAD TO FLEE FROM FRANCE TO GENEVA. IN 1560, ABOUT 15% OF FRENCH POPULATION WAS CALVINIST: HUGUENOTS. SEE THE SAINT BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY MASSACRE (1572).


KINGS AND PRINCES

10-PHILIP IV, THE FAIR (1285-1314): HE ARRESTED BONIFACE VIII (1303), MADE DISSOLVE THE ORDER OF THE TEMPLAR TO GET ITS MONEY AND LANDS, MADE THE NEW POPE TO MOVE TO FRENCH TERRITORY TO CONTROL HIM.

11-FREDERICK ,THE WISE: GERMAN PRINCE WHO HELPED LUTHER.

12-CHARLES I OF SPAIN AND V OF THE HOLY EMPIRE (1517-1556): THE MOST POWERFUL KING IN EUROPE DURING THE 16th. CENTURY.

13-HENRY VIII (1491-1547): ENGLISH KING, FOUNDER OF THE ANGLICAN CHURCH. THE TUDOR FAMILY. SIX WIVES:

. CATHERINE OF ARAGON (1485-1536): 18 YEARS OF MARRIAGE.

. ANNE BOLEYN (1507-1536): BEHEADED.

. JANE SEYMOUR (1509-1537): MOTHER OF EDWARD VI.

. ANNE DE CLEVES (1515-1557): REPUDIATED.

. CATHERINE HOWARD (1522-1542): BEHEADED.

. CATHERINE PARR (1512-1548): HIS LAST WIFE.

14-EDWARD VI (1537-1553): ONLY SON OF HENRY VIII. KING OF ENGLAND AFTER HIS FATHER DEATH. UNHEALTHY.

15-MARY I TUDOR, "BLOODY MARY" (1516-1558): DAUGHTER OF CATHERINE OF ARAGON. CATHOLIC. SHE PERSECUTED PROTESTANTS. WIFE OF PHILIP II OF SPAIN. QUEEN OF ENGLAND AFTER EDWARD VI DEATH.

16-ELIZABETH I (1533-1603): DAUGHTER OF ANNE BOLEYN. QUEEN OF ENGLAND AFTER MARY'S DEATH. SHE ESTABLISHED A STRONG GOVERNMENT, CREATED A NAVAL FORCE OF PIRATES (FRANCIS DRAKE) TO ATTACK SPANISH GALLEONS AND STEAL THE GOLD FROM AMERICAN COLONIES, FOUGHT AND DEFEATED HIS BROTHER IN LAW, PHILIP II OF SPAIN (LA ARMADA INVINCIBLE). SHE TRIED TO UNIFY CATHOLICS & PROTESTANTS IN ENGLAND (PURITANS OPPOSED TO THIS; MANY FLED TO AMERICA).

17-PHILIP II OF SPAIN, THE PRUDENT (1527-1598): KING OF SPAIN. CREATED A STRONG GOVERNMENT. HE BUILT THE MONASTERY OF THE ESCORIAL (22 YEARS - 1563) WHERE THE KING USED TO GO LOOKING FOR REST. CREATED THE ARMADA TO FIGHT ENGLISH PIRATES.

18-HENRI IV OF FRANCE (1553-1610): He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion before ascending the throne in 1589. Before his coronation as King of France at Chartres, he changed his faith from Calvinism to Catholicism and, in 1598, he enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants, thereby effectively ending the civil war. He was said to have declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a Mass"). One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, Henry showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the time. He was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic. See Queen Margot.

CHURCH MEN

19-MONK JOHN TETZEL (1465-1519): THE SALE OF INDULGENCES. HIS SLOGAN: "AS SOON AS THE COIN IN THE COFFER RINGS, THE SOUL FROM PURGATORY SPRINGS".

20-IGNATIUS LOYOLA (1491-1556): FOUNDER OF THE SOCIETY OF JESUS.

 

MAJOR EVENTS OF THE REFORMATION

The Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolt or the Reformation, was the European Christian reform movement that established Protestantism as a constituent branch of contemporary Christianity. It was led by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the corruption, doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Catholics responded with a Counter-Reformation, led by the Jesuit order, which reclaimed large parts of Europe, such as Poland. In general, northern Europe, with the exception of Ireland and pockets of Britain, turned Protestant, and southern Europe remained Catholic, while fierce battles that turned into warfare took place in the central Europe. The largest of the new denominations were the Anglicans (based in England), the Lutherans (based in Germany and Scandinavia), and the Reformed churches (based in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Scotland). There were many smaller bodies as well. The most common dating begins in 1517 when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars.

1-1530 - 1546: CHARLES V  DECLARED WAR AGAINST THE LUTHERAN PRINCES. THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG LET EACH PRINCE TO DECIDE WHICH RELIGION WOULD EXIST IN HIS TERRITORY.

2-ST. BARTHOLOMEW’S DAY, AUGUST 24, 1572: MOBS OF CATHOLICS ATTACKED AND KILLED HUGUENOTS IN PARIS. DURING ALL THE MONTH, PROTESTANTS WERE MURDERED IN ALL FRANCE (12,000). SEE French Wars of Religion (1562–98). See Margaret of Valois (Queen Margot) & Henry III of Navarre (King Henri IV of France)

3-THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-1648): WARS THAT STARTED BETWEEN GERMAN PRINCES IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (CATHOLICS VS. PROTESTANTS). TREATY OF WESTPHALIA: GERMAN STATES WOULD HAVE INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENTS. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE SHOULD HAVE THE CONSENT OF THE STATES TO MAKE LAWS, RAISE TAXES, ETC. THE WAR, EVENTUALLY,  EVOLVED INTO A MAJOR EUROPEAN WAR: PROTESTANT COUNTRIES (SWEDEN, ENGLAND, FRANCE) VS CATHOLIC COUNTRIES (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE & SPAIN). SPAIN AGAINST FRANCE. SPAIN LOST HOLLAND AND PORTUGAL (INDEPENDENCE).

4-THE COUNTERREFORMATION:

. CORRECT PROBLEMS WITHIN THE CHURCH.

.CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS.

.THE HOLY INQUISITION.

.THE COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563).

.THE SOCIETY OF JESUS (1540): RELIGIOUS CRUSADERS, MILITARY UNITS, MISSIONARIES, DISCIPLINE.

           
Martin Luther, Saxony,                       John Calvin, Picardie region, France          Henry VIII, King of England 
Holy Roman Empire (Germany)


Counter Reformation: Burning Books                                  Ignacio López de Loyola (1491-1556) founder of the
                                                                                          Society of Jesus (Jesuits)


St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572): Around 30,000 Huguenots were killed by Roman Catholic mobs in France.


                                                                                                 Thirty Years War: 1618 –1648

Belligerents
Flag of Sweden Sweden
 Bohemia
Flag of Denmark Denmark
 Dutch Republic
Flag of France France
Saxony
Electoral Palatinate
Flag of England England
Brandenburg-Prussia
Transylvania
Hungarian anti-Habsburg rebels
Zaporozhian Cossacks
 Holy Roman Empire
Catholic League
Flag of Habsburg Monarchy Austria
Flag of the Kingdom of Bavaria Bavaria
Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Spain Spanish Empire
 
Commanders
Flag of Sweden Earl of Leven
Flag of Sweden Gustav II Adolf 
Flag of Sweden Johan Banér
Flag of Bohemia Frederick V
Flag of Denmark Christian IV of Denmark
Flag of the Dutch Republic Maurice of Nassau
Flag of the Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Flag of France Cardinal Richelieu
Flag of France Louis II de Bourbon
Flag of France Vicomte de Turenne
Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Johann Georg I of Saxony
Gabriel Bethlen
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly 
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy 
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Flag of the Kingdom of Bavaria Maximilian I
Flag of Spain Count-Duke Olivares
Flag of Spain Ambrogio Spinola
Flag of Spain Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Strength
~495,000,
150,000 Swedes,
20,000 Danish,
75,000 Dutch,
~100,000 Germans,
150,000 French,
6,000 Transylvanian and 20-30,000 Hungarian soldiers
~450,000,
300,000 Spanish,
~100-200,000 Germans,
aprox. 20,000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry

Chart above from Wikipedia Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty_Years_War


9-Age of Exploration & Discovery
 

Topic 8: Age of Exploration 

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

                                (Standard 4:  Analyze the causes and events, and effects of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Age of Exploration)

Humanities           (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.W.4.11:  Summarize the causes that led to the Age of Exploration, and identify major voyages and sponsors.                                                                                                                                                                    

SS.912.W.4.12:  Evaluate the scope and impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas.                                                                                                                                                                     

SS.912.W.4.13:  Examine the various economic and political systems of Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France, and England in the Americas.                                                                                                                                                                     

SS.912.W.4.14:  Recognize the practice of slavery and other forms of forced labor experienced during the 13th through 17th centuries in East Africa, West  Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, and the Americas.                                                                                                                                                                   

SS.912.W.4.15:  Explain the origins, developments, and impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade between West Africa and the Americas.                                    

Essential Content:

  ·  Major Voyages and Sponsors: Reasons for Exploration, Henry the Navigator, Christopher Columbus,  Vasco de Gama and Diaz, Henry Cortes,  Zheng He, Magellan

 ·     The Columbian Exchange and Beyond: Europe,  Africa,  Asia, The Philippines.

·     Methods of Colonization:  Spain and Portugal, Treaty of Tordesillas, Encomienda System, Conquistadors, The Netherlands,  The Dutch East India Company, France, England

·     Slavery and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Sources of Slaves,  The Middle Passage, Growth of the Slave Trade, Effects of the Slave Trade.

Vocabulary/Identification (Discovery):  conquistador, colony, mercantilism, balance of trade, the compass, Joint stock company, triangular trade, Columbian exchange, Middle Passage, Treaty of Torsedillas, Henry the Navigator, Christopher Columbus, Vasco de Gama, Henry Cortes, Zheng He, Ferdinand Magellan, spice trade, encomienda system,  Dutch East India Company, Arawak, The Philippines, Fort Jesus Mombasa, Kongo Kingdom, Menin Tribe.

o        ==> Please, watch the following videos (free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

History Videos (Free)

-Youtube

Turning Points in History: Age of Exploration: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3fYF6YvesA
Just the Facts: Spanish Colonization of North America Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2ZX3eOmFnA
Just the Facts: Spanish Colonization of North America Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOjn0W4J-ws
Just the Facts: Spanish Colonization of North America Part 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ID7Bx_8V_os
Conquest of America: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Orf_qaL8PiY&feature=fvsr
Guns, Germs, and Steel: Conquest of the Americas. National Geographic: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXcj0ZEyIY8
Have Fun with History. The New World: http://www.havefunwithhistory.com/movies/newWorld.html
First Australians (2008)...7 Episodes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VcslF8yQ1Tg

-Study.com (each video is only 5 minutes): Earn College Credits!!

The Old World and New World: Why Europeans Sailed to the Americas
History of Gunpowder and its Effects on the New World
How the Compass Helped Columbus
Great Explorers of Spain and Portugal: Aims & Discoveries
Mapping the World, Seaborne Commerce & Piracy
Conquistadors and Encomienda System: Definition & Savaging of the New World
Las Casas, Valladolid Debate & Converting the New World
Colonialism Across Europe
Jamestown: Conflict in the New World

Effects of European Colonization: Christopher Columbus and Native Americans
The Commercial Revolution: Economic Impact of Exploration and Colonization on Europe

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjEGncridoQ

The Columbian Exchange: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4

The Atlantic Slave Trade: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnV_MTFEGIY
The Spanish Empire, Silver, & Runaway Inflation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjhIzemLdos
The Amazing Life and Strange Death of Captain Cook: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yXNrLTddME

-Annenberg Learner (28 minutes each)

Food, Demographics and Culture (Info)... Video: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2159
The Renaissance and the New World:  http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=844

 


VOCABULARY

1-MERCHANTS: TRADERS.

2-TREATY OF TORDESILLAS: The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), 7 June 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands discovered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain). The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain. The treaty was ratified by Spain, 2 July 1494 and by Portugal, 5 September 1494. The other side of the world would be divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529. Originals of both treaties are kept at the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and at the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo in Portugal.
2.1-
LINE OF DEMARCATION: The line dividing the Spanish and Portuguese territories, according the Treaty of Tordesillas.

3-CONQUISTADORES (CONQUERORS): Spanish and Portuguese soldiers, explorers, and adventurers (looking for gold, lands, and glory) who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain and Portugal in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The two perhaps most famous conquistadors were Hernán Cortés who conquered the Aztec Empire and Francisco Pizarro who led the conquest of the Incan Empire. They were second cousins and both of them were born in Extremadura as well as many of the conquerors who were from Spain. Conquistadors in the Americas resembled a volunteer militia more than than a regular organized military in that they had to supply their own materials, weapons and horses.

4-ADELANTADO: This was a military title held by some Spanish conquistadores of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Adelantados were granted directly by the Monarch the right to become governors and justices of a specific region, which they charged with conquering, in exchange for funding and organizing the initial explorations, settlements and pacification of the target area on behalf of the Crown of Castile. These areas were usually outside of the jurisdiction of an audiencia or viceroy, and adelantados were authorized to communicate directly with the Council of the Indies.

5-JESUIT: MISSIONARIES. THEIR MISSION WAS TO CONVERT NATIVES TO CHRISTIANITY.

6-SMALLPOX: Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to human. The term "smallpox" was first used in Europe in the 15th century to distinguish it from the "great pox" (syphilis). In 1507 smallpox was introduced into the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and to the mainland in 1520, when Spanish settlers from Hispaniola arriving in Mexico brought smallpox with them. Smallpox devastated the native Amerindian population and was an important factor in the conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas by the Spaniards. Settlement of the east coast of North America in 1633 in Plymouth, Massachusetts was also accompanied by devastating outbreaks of smallpox among Native American populations, and subsequently among the native-born colonists. Some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.

7-MEASLES: Measles, also known as rubella, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus. Measles is an endemic disease, meaning it has been continually present in a community, and many people develop resistance. In populations not exposed to measles, exposure to a new disease can be devastating. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of the natives who had previously survived smallpox. Two years later, measles was responsible for the deaths of half the population of Honduras, and had ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization

8-ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM: A system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor. In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. In theory, the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products. In practice, the difference between encomienda and slavery could be minimal. Natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted.

9- SCURVY: Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans. Scurvy was at one time common among sailors, pirates and others aboard ships at sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored (subsisting instead only on cured and salted meats and dried grains) and by soldiers similarly separated from these foods for extended periods. It was described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC–c. 380 BC), and herbal cures for scurvy have been known in many native cultures since prehistory. Scurvy was one of the limiting factors of marine travel, often killing large numbers of the passengers and crew on long-distance voyages. This became a significant issue in Europe from the beginning of the modern era in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century

10-VICEROY: KING’S REPRESENTATIVE IN AMERICA.

11-AGE OF DISCOVERY: The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, was a period in history starting in the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the world, establishing direct contacts with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania and mapping the planet. Historians often refer to the 'Age of Discovery' as the pioneer Portuguese and Spanish long-distance maritime travels in search of alternative trade routes to "the Indies", moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices.

12-COLUMBUS DAY: Many countries in the New World and elsewhere celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492, as an official holiday. The event is celebrated as Columbus Day in the United States, as Día de la Raza in many countries in Latin America, as Discovery Day in the Bahamas, as Día de la Hispanidad and Fiesta Nacional in Spain and as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas) in Uruguay. These holidays have been celebrated unofficially since the late 18th century, and officially in various areas since the early 20th century.

13-MERCANTILISM: Mercantilism is the economic doctrine that says government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and security of a state. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade. In thought and practice it dominated Western Europe from the 16th to the late-18th century. Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time. It also was a motive for colonial expansion.

Mercantilist policies have included:

14-BALANCE OF TRADE: The balance of trade (or net exports) is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports. A positive balance is known as a trade surplus if it consists of exporting more than is imported; a negative balance is referred to as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap.

15-COLONY: In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state that owns the colony. Mother country is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. Unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state. Owning colonies leads to sources of raw materials, cheap / free labor, international prestige and power, places to install military bases, etc.
15.1-COLONIALISM: Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of
colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropolis claims sovereignty over the colony and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonizers from the metropolis. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the metropolis and the colony and between the colonists and the indigenous population.

16-COMPASS: A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points), north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points to the north.

17-TRIANGULAR TRADE: Triangular trade, or triangle trade, is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe.

18-COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World and New World). It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in all of human history. Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange. The term was coined by Alfred W. Crosby, a historian, professor and author, in his 1972 book The Columbian Exchange.

19-MIDDLE PASSAGE: The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. A single voyage on the Middle Passage was a large financial undertaking, and they were generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals.
19.1-MAROONS / CIMARRON or JIBARO:
 Runaway slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, and North America, who formed independent settlements together.
19.1-QUILOMBOS  / MOCAMBOS:
Settlements mainly of fugitive / runaway slaves and free-born blacks in the mountains or jungles of Brazil. Palmares (1605-1694) was one of the most famous.
19.2-PALENQUES:
 Settlements mainly of fugitive / runaway slaves and free-born blacks in the mountains of Cuba. Rancheador = Slave Hunter.

20-SPICE TRADE: The spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of spices, incense, hemp, drugs and opium. Civilizations of Asia were involved in spice trade from the ancient times, and the Greco-Roman world soon followed by trading along the Incense route and the Roman-India routes. By mid-7th century the rise of Islam closed off the overland caravan routes through Egypt. Arab traders eventually took over conveying goods via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Turks cut the route again by 1453. This led the Europeans to search for a maritime route to Asia.

21-BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANYAn early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China. The Company was granted an English Royal Charter, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the largest of which was the Dutch East India Company. The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The Company also came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits; it effectively functioned as a mega corporation. Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India. The Company itself was finally dissolved on 1 January 1874.

22-DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY: A chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the second multinational corporation in the world (the British East India Company was founded two years earlier) and the first company to issue stock. It was also arguably the world's second mega corporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.

23-ARAWAK: The Arawak people are some of the indigenous peoples of the West Indies. They were the natives whom Christopher Columbus encountered when he first arrived in the Americas in 1492. The Spanish described them as a peaceful primitive people. The Arawak people include the Taíno, who occupied the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas; the Nepoya and Suppoya of Trinidad, and the Igneri, who were supposed to have preceded the Caribs in the Lesser Antilles, together with related groups (including the Lucayans) which lived along the eastern coast of South America, as far south as what is now Brazil.

24-THE PHILIPPINES: A country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual dominance. Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet. Christianity was widely adopted.

25-FORT JESUS: Fort Jesus is a Portuguese fort built in 1593 by order of King Philip I of Portugal (King Philip II of Spain), then ruler of the joint Portuguese and Spanish Kingdoms, located on Mombasa Island to guard the Old Port of Mombasa, Kenya. It was built in the shape of a man (viewed from the air), and was given the name of Jesus. It was the first European-style fort constructed outside of Europe designed to resist cannon fire. When the British colonized Kenya, they used it as a prison, until 1958, when they converted it into a historical monument.

26-KINGDOM OF CONGO: The Kingdom of Kongo (1400-1914)  was an African kingdom located in west central Africa. In approximately 1400, Lukeni lua Nimi, became the founder of Kongo when he conquered the kingdom of the Mwene Kabunga, which lay upon a mountain to his south. He transferred his rule to this mountain, the  "mountain of Kongo", and made Mbanza Kongo, the town there, his capital. By the end of the sixteenth century, Congo's population was probably close to half a million people in a core region of some 130,000 square kilometers. This concentration allowed resources, soldiers and surplus foodstuffs to be readily available at the request of the king. This made the king overwhelmingly powerful and caused the kingdom to become highly centralized. By the time of the first recorded contact with the Europeans, the Kingdom of Kongo was a highly developed state at the center of an extensive trading network. Apart from natural resources and ivory, the country manufactured and traded copperware, ferrous metal goods, raffia cloth, and pottery. The Kongo people spoke in the Kikongo language. The eastern regions, especially that part known as the Seven Kingdoms of Kongo dia Nlaza, were particularly famous for the production of cloth.

In 1483, the Portuguese explorer Diogo Căo sailed up the uncharted Congo River, stumbling on Kongo villages and becoming the first European to encounter the Kongo kingdom. During his visit, Căo left his men in Kongo while taking Kongo nobles and bringing them to Portugal. He returned with the Kongo nobles in 1485. At that point the ruling king, Nzinga a Nkuwu, converted to Christianity. Căo returned to the kingdom with Roman Catholic priests and soldiers in 1491, baptizing Nzinga a Nkuwu as well as his principal nobles. At the same time a literate Kongo citizen returning from Portugal opened the first school. Nzinga a Nkuwu took the name of Joăo I in honor of Portugal's king at the time, Joăo II. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Kongo became a major source of slaves for Portuguese traders and other European powers. Portugal and the Dutch will eventually fight for control over Congo.

 


OUTSTANDING PEOPLE, LEADERS

1-PRINCE HENRY, THE NAVIGATOR (1394-1460): HE ESTABLISHED A SCHOOL FOR SAILORS TO PROMOTE EXPLORATIONS. (PORTUGAL).

2-CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (1451-1506): ITALIAN SAILOR (GENEVA) WHO "DISCOVERED" THE AMERICAS FOR SPAIN.

3-FERDINAND II OF ARAGON (1452-1516): KING OF SPAIN

4-ISABELLE I OF CASTILE (1451-1504): QUEEN OF SPAIN

5-THE PINZON BROTHERS: SAILORS FROM PALOS DE MOGUER, SPAIN, WHO CAME WITH COLUMBUS TO AMERICA: MARTIN ALONSO (LA PINTA), VICENTE YANEZ (LA NINA).

6-VASCO DE GAMA (1469-1524): PORTUGUESE SAILOR. IN 1497, HE ROUNDED THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND REACHED CALCUTTA, INDIA. THE JOURNEY TOOK 2 YEARS.

7-FERDINAND MAGELLAN (1480-1521): PORTUGUESE SAILOR. FIRST TO SAIL AROUND THE WORLD. HE NAMED THE STRAIT. (5 SHIPS, 256 CREWMEN / 1 SHIP, 18 SAILORS).

8-HERNAN CORTEZ (1485-1547): CONQUEROR OF THE AZTECS.

9-MOCTEZUMA II (1466-1520): LAST EMPEROR OF THE AZTECS.

10-FRANCISCO PIZARRO (1475-1541): CONQUEROR OF THE INCAS.

11-ATAHUALPA (1500-1533): LAST EMPEROR OF THE INCAS.

12-BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS (1474-1566): DOMINICAN PRIEST WHO TRIED TO PROTECT AND HELP THE INDIANS.

13-HERNANDO DE SOTO (1496-1542): A Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (Florida, Georgia, Alabama and most likely Arkansas), and the first documented European to have crossed the Mississippi River.

14-JOHN CABOT (1450-1498): ITALIAN EXPLORER WHO FOUNDED THE FIRST BRITISH COLONY IN NORTH AMERICA.

15-SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN (1567-1635): FRENCH EXPLORER WHO FOUNDED QUEBEC, THE FIRST FRENCH COLONY IN NORTH AMERICA.

16-AMERIGO VESPUCCI (1454-1512): ITALIAN GEOGRAPHER AND SAILOR. HIS NAME WAS GIVEN TO THE NEW CONTINENT.

17-BERNAL DIAZ DEL CASTILLO (1493 - 1584): Author of the  "The True History of the Conquest of New Spain".

18-ZHENG HE (1371–1433): Zheng He was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa, collectively referred to as the Voyages of Zheng He from 1405 to 1433.

19-OLAUDAH EQUIANO (1745-1797): Also known as Gustavus Vassa, he was a prominent African involved in the British movement towards the abolition of the slave trade. His autobiography depicted the horrors of slavery and helped influence British lawmakers to abolish the slave trade through the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Despite his enslavement as a young man, he purchased his freedom and worked as an author, merchant and explorer in South America, the Caribbean, the Arctic, the American colonies, and the United Kingdom.


==>   Why did the Europeans abandon their cities to come to America, risking their lives?    The Three G's: Gold, God, and Glory <==


 

Before Columbus

Before 1500 most overland and maritime expansion had come from Asia, as had the most useful technologies and the most influential systems of belief. By 1450 much had been accomplished with regard to technology and trade. The greatest success was the trading system that united people around the Indian Ocean.

The greatest sailors of the Atlantic before the 1400’s were the Vikings. They were explorers and pirates. They discovered and settled Iceland (770), Greenland (982), and Vinland / Newfoundland in North America. (986). Genoese and Portuguese expeditions discovered and settled the island of Madeira, the Azores, and the Canaries in the 14th. Century.

The voyages of Polynesian people out of sight of land over vast distances across the Pacific Ocean are one of the most impressive feats in maritime history before 1450. Polynesian sailors settled the islands of the eastern Pacific as a result of planned expeditions. Evidence supporting this theory: The plants and domesticated animals found in these islands were common to other Polynesia islands. The languages are also related to those spoken in the western Pacific and Malaysia. The 1976 voyage of the Hokulea proved it was possible. The island of Madagascar was settled by both Malayo-Indonesians and Africans.

Sailing the Indian Ocean was less difficult than other places because the monsoon winds were predictable. The rise of medieval Islam gave trade in this region an important boost. Muslim cities in the Middle East created a demand for commodities from the Far East. Muslim traders shared a common ethic, language, and religion making communications / relations easy. Muslims traders tied the region together in many ways.  The Indian Ocean traders operated largely independently of the empires and states they served.

In 1368 the Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol rule in China. The Ming wanted to establish contacts with the people of the Indian Ocean. They sent out seven imperial fleets between 1405 and 1433, led by Admiral Zheng He, a Muslin Chinese eunuch. Reasons: to satisfy curiosity / learn from other people, to enhance China’s commerce, and to show Ming’s power and wealth (give gifts to visited rulers). Treasure Ships carried rich silks, precious metals, and other valuable goods. These voyages were extended to Africa and as a result, at least three trading cities in East Africa sent delegations to China in 1415 (one brought a giraffe). The Swahili silk market was stimulated by these voyages. The Chinese imported more pepper because of this exchange. At the end, the Ming court suspended the voyages because the increase in trade was less than expected, the Mongols were pressuring from the north, and Japanese pirates were also creating problems. China had other priorities. Chinese rulers opposed contacts with peoples whom they regarded as barbarians with no real contributions to make to China. This decision left a power vacuum in the Indian Ocean.

Amerindians voyages used ocean currents to travel northward from Peru (Incas) to Mexico (Mayas & Aztecs) between 300 and 900 C.E. and also colonized the West Indies.. By the year 1000 the Arawak had moved up from small islands in the Lesser Antilles (Barbados and Martinique) into the Greater Antilles (Cuba and Hispaniola). The Carib followed the same route later overrunning most Arawak settlements. They both also organized voyages to North American mainland.

European Expansion

The epic sea voyages sponsored by the Iberian kingdoms (Spain & Portugal) began a maritime revolution that altered the course of world history. They ended the isolation of the Americas. The ways in which African, Asians, and Amerindians perceived and reacted to their new visitors were different and that influenced their future relations.

Iberian rulers had strong economic, religious, and political motives to expand their contacts and increase their dominance. Their maritime and military technologies gave them the means to master the oceans, seize control of maritime routes, and conquer new lands. The individual ambitions and adventurous personalities of the rulers of these states contributed to these events. Many other factors led to these voyages: revival of urban life and trade, struggle with Islamic powers for dominance of the Mediterranean, desire to spread the Christian faith, need to expand trade with distant lands, growing intellectual curiosity about the outside world, need to find a direct maritime route with Asia to avoid trading with the middlemen (Muslims), and alliance between European merchants and rulers. (Also see 3 Gs). The Italian cities of Genoa and Venice did not lead the way in these voyages of exploration because their ships were not suited to sail the Atlantic and they preferred a system of alliances with the Muslim.

Portugal conquered the city of Ceuta (Morocco) in 1415. Portuguese conquerors found that homes there were so big and beautiful that made those in Portugal look like pigsties. The attack was led by young Prince Henry (1394-1460), soon to be known as Henry the Navigator. He wanted to convert Africans to Christianity, to make contact with the rulers of Africa (mainly to gain access to the sub-Saharan gold trade), and to crusade against the Muslims. He also founded a “research institute” at Sagres to promote the study of navigation and to collect info about the lands beyond Muslim North Africa. He worked to improve navigational instruments (magnetic compass and the astrolabe) originally created by the Chinese & the Arabs or Greeks and to design appropriate vessels for the voyages of exploration: the Caravel (fast, strong, maneuverable, and a good fighting ship). In the years that followed, Henry’s explores made an important addition to the maritime revolution: learning to speedily return home from the coasts of Africa by sailing northwest to ride westerly winds.  Henry derived fund for his expeditions from the Order of Christ, a military religious order that inherited the properties of the Knights Templar and of which he was governor. The first financial return from the voyages came from the sale of slaves captured in African coasts. However, the gold trade quickly became more important than the slave trade one the Portuguese made contact with the trading networks of West Africa (Mali). In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias was the first Portuguese explorer to round the southern tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean. In 1497-98 Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa and reached India. In 1500, ships in an expedition under Pedro Alvarez Cabral, while attempting to find a favorable wind around Africa, discovered by accident the east coast of South America (Brazil).

Many Africans along the West African coast were eager for trade with the Portuguese, including the African king Caramansa who received the Portuguese with a ceremony pledging goodwill and mutual benefits.  The oba (king) of the kingdom of Benin in the Niger Delta, received the visit of the Portuguese in 1486. He established a royal monopoly on trade with them, selling pepper, ivory tusks, stone textiles, and prisoners of war. In return, the Portuguese provided Benin with copper and brass, fine textiles, glass beads, and a horse. In the early 1500’s, as the demand for slaves grew, the oba first raised the prices and later limited the sale of slaves. The Portuguese tried to persuade Africans to accept Christianity. In 1538 the ruler of Benin declined to receive more missionaries and closed the market of slaves. The slave trade was controlled by monopolies held by African kings in West Africa. As Vasco da Gama fleet sailed up the coast of East Africa most rulers gave him a cool reception. Malindi, one of the rulers even provided a pilot to guide him to India. Seven years later, when da Gama returned, bombarded and looted most of the coastal cities, but spared Malindi’s. Portuguese aid helped the Christian Ethiopian kingdom from the attacks from the Ottoman Empire. Europeans remained a minor presence in most Africa in 1550. They were more interested in the Indian Ocean trade.

Vasco da Gama’s arrival on the Malabar Coast of India in 1498 did not make a great impression. The samorin (ruler) of Calicut and his Muslim officials received the gifts brought by da Gama with a derisive laughter. The Indian Ocean had been an open sea. Now the Portuguese intended to make it Portugal’s sea, its private property. They counted on the superiority of its ships and weapons. In 1505 the Portuguese fleet of 81 ships and 7,000 men bombarded Swahili Coast cities. Next were Indian ports, like Goa that fell in 1510.  The port of Hormuz, controlling the entry to the Persian Gulf, was taken in 1515. The conquest of the port of Diu (Gujarati) in 1535 consolidated Portuguese dominance of the western Indian Ocean. On the China coast, local officials and merchants interested in profitable trade persuaded the imperial government to allow the Portuguese to establish a trading post at Macao in 1557. Operating from there, Portuguese ships monopolized trade between China and Japan. The Portuguese used their control of key port cities to monopolize trade in the Indian Ocean. All ships had to pay taxes, custom duties, and even to carry Portuguese passports. Portuguese patrols seized vessels trying to avoid these requirements, confiscating their cargoes. China and the Mughal empires largely ignored Portugal’s maritime intrusions, only concerned with their vast land possessions. The Ottomans responded more aggressively, trying to fight back. They were defeated twice. Portuguese control was ocean-based. They had little impact on the Asian and African mainland, in sharp contrast to what happened in the Americas, where the Spain built a huge territorial empire. The result of the domination of the Indian Ocean trade generated considerable profits for Portugal, more spices and luxury goods were shipped to Europe, and the prices offered by the Portuguese were lower than those of Venice or Genoa.

The Indian Ocean trade was first controlled by the Portuguese (1497-1663); then, after the Dutch -Portuguese War (1602-1663), the Dutch acquired supremacy in the region; and finally, after 1815, the British took over the main ports and territories in the Indian Ocean, including India, Australia, , Egypt, South Africa, among others.

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), a Genoese sailor, was the leader of Spain overseas missions. He thought that sailing west he could find a shorter way to Asia. In 1492, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand agreed to fund a modest expedition. Columbus departed Friday, the 3rd. of August, with a crew of 90 men and three ships; he carried a letter from Isabella and Ferdinand to the Grand Khan / Chinese Emperor. The 12th. day of October the expedition reached one of the islands of the Bahamas. After other three voyages, Columbus still thought that he had reached Asia. Others, like Amerigo Vespucci, were convinced that Columbus had discovered a new continent, which Amerigo decided to name America. Spain and Portugal agreed to split the “new world” between them. The Treaty of Tordesillas, negotiated by the Pope in 1494, drew an imaginary line dividing the Spanish possessions (west) from the Portuguese (east). By chance, in 1513, a Spanish adventurer named Vasco Nuńez de Balboa crossed the isthmus of Panama from the east and sighted the Pacific Ocean. In 1519 the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the world, which laid the basis for Spanish colonization of the Philippine islands after 1564.

The first Amerindians to encounter Columbus were the Arawak of Hispaniola. During the first contacts, Amerindians welcomed the Europeans. In dealing with small communities in the Caribbean, the European settlers resorted to conquest and plunder rather than trade. At the same time, they were eager to persuade the Indians to accept Christianity. Same practice was used later on the American mainland. The spread of deadly diseases among Amerindians after 1518 killed millions of them, weakening their ability to resist. Those who fought back had a major disadvantage: the Spaniards had horses, firearms, and body armor. The Spanish behaved in America following the same patterns they used during the wars against the Muslims: seeking to serve God and become rich in the process. Conquistadores (conquerors) like Juan Ponce de Leon (1460-1521) participated in the seizure of Hispaniola conquered the island of Borinquen in 1508 and explored Florida in 1513. Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire with the help of native allies who hated the Aztecs.  Even when initially the Aztecs destroyed half of the Spanish force and thousands of their allies, they recaptured Tenochtitlan in 1521 thanks to the spread of the smallpox among the city’s defenders, that died by the thousands. In 1532 Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541) and his 180 men captured the Inca emperor, Atahualpa, killing thousand of his soldiers. After receiving a ransom of 6,000 kg. of gold and 12,000 kg. of silver that the Incas paid for their emperor’s freedom, Atahualpa was executed by the Spaniards. In 1533 the Spaniards took Cuzco.

European conquests of the Americas were no more rapid or brutal than the Mongol conquest of Eurasia, but their empires would continue to expand for three-and-a-half centuries after 1550. Unlike the Chinese, the Europeans did not turn their backs on the world after an initial burst of exploration. From this point on, the world experienced the European supremacy and control of the world.


 

                                         Before Columbus

The Vikings explored the Atlantic Ocean and discovered America, in the 900's.

 

The Polynesian explored the Pacific Ocean.

Marco Polo moved around Asia.                                                                                  

Ibn Battuta (1304–1368)) traveled the Islamic world.

 

Chinese explorer explored the Indian Ocean.
  



The Spice Trade: The economically important Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue) blocked by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire, spurring exploration motivated initially by the finding of a sea route around Africa and triggering the Age of Discovery.

 

                                                             


 

 

   
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Spanish Galeon

Christopher Columbus

   
First Encounter                                                                                                                      Columbus brings gifts to the monarchs


Vasco da Gama's Expedition

                                                    Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494

 

 


The city of St. Augustine, Florida, was founded in September 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. It is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United States. The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the United States. Located on the shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida, construction was begun in 1672, 107 years after the city was founded.

  


Hernán Cortéz and the conquest of the Aztecs


Pizarro captured  the Inca emperor, Atahualpa.


Pizarro, after receiving a ransom of 6,000 kgs. of gold and 12,000 kgs. of silver that the
Incas paid for their emperor’s freedom, ordered the execution of Atahualpa.

 
Spain explorers the American southwest

  

       Syphilis=====>          <=====Smallpox

 

 
                                                                            Triangular Trade

THE CONQUEST OF THE AZTECS

-IN 1519, HERNAN CORTEZ SAILED WITH 11 SHIPS, 500 SOLDIERS, AND 16 HORSES FROM CUBA TO MEXICO. HE BURNED HIS SHIPS WHEN HE LANDED.

-THE AZTECS WERE WAITING THE QUETZALCOATL (LEGEND). THEY BELIEVED THE SPANIARDS WERE GODS. MOCTEZUMA HAD AN ARMY OF 200,000 WARRIORS, BUT INSTEAD OF FIGHTING THE SPANIARDS, HE SENT GIFTS OF SOLID GOLD TO THEM. CORTEZ WAS RECEIVED IN TENOCHTITLAN.

-NEIGHBOR PEOPLES THAT WERE CONQUERED BY THE AZTECS HATED THEM AND HELPED CORTEZ TO FIGHT AGAINST TENOCHTITLAN.

-MOCTEZUMA WAS KILLED BY HIS OWN PEOPLE. TENOCHTITLAN WAS DEFEATED IN 1521.

 

THE CONQUEST OF THE INCAS

-IN 1532, FRANCISCO PIZARRO LED 180 SPANIARDS TO SOUTH AMERICA.

-ATAHUALPA WAS FIGHTING A CIVIL WAR AGAINST HIS BROTHER.

-PIZARRO ATTACKED BY SURPRISE AND CAPTURED ATAHUALPA WHO OFFERED A FULL ROOM OF GOLD AS RANSOM. PIZARRO AGREED, BUT WHEN HE HAD THE GOLD, HE EXECUTED ATAHUALPA.

-WITHOUT THEIR LEADER, THE INDIANS ACCEPTED SPANISH RULE.

 

WHY DID THE AMERICAN EMPIRES FALL SO EASY ?

1-HISTORICAL COINCIDENCE (LEGEND OF THE QUETZALCOATL) AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS.

2-INTERNAL PROBLEMS IN NATIVE AMERICAN EMPIRES (DIVISIONS, CIVIL WARS).

3-EUROPEANS HAD CANNONS, GUNS, ARMORS, AND HORSES.

4-MILLIONS OF INDIANS DIED BECAUSE NEW DISEASES (SMALLPOX & MEASLES).

VICEROYALTIES:

NEW SPAIN (1535) Mexico,  South of USA, Central America

PERU (1542): Andes

NEW GRANADA (1717) PANAMA, VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA & ECUADOR.

LA PLATA (1776) ARGENTINA, CHILE, URUGUAY

 

OTHER IMPORTANT COMPONENTS

-ENCOMIENDAS (INDIANS) / MINES / PLANTATIONS (SLAVES)

-MISSIONARIES (BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS). THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH: CHRISTIANIZATION

-AFRICAN SLAVES. THE SLAVE TRADE. THE MIDDLE PASSAGE.

-TRIANGULAR TRADE

-TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS: PUEBLOS, PRESIDIOS OR FORTRESSES, AND MISSIONS

 

RESULTS OF EXPLORATION & COLONIZATION

1-EUROPEANS GAINED POLITICAL AND ECONOMICAL POWER; THEY BECAME THE RULING GROUP IN THE WORLD AND THEIR CULTURE BECAME THE SUPERIOR ONE.

2-MILLIONS OF NATIVE AMERICANS DIED AND THEIR CIVILIZATION WAS DESTROYED.

3-AFRICA EXPERIENCED THE ROBBERY / EXTRACTION OF MILLIONS OF ITS BEST CHILDREN WHICH WILL HAVE AN IMPACT IN ITS FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

4-WORLD TRADE CHANGED PEOPLE’S LIVES (NEW ANIMALS, PLANTS, PRODUCTS, AND HABITS).

5-THE WORLD "GREW".

 

INDIAN OCEAN TRADE

Control over this region, after the discovery of the "New World", passed from Portugal, to the Dutch, to Great Britain.


10-Asia in Transition

Topic 9: Asia in Transition (East Asia)                                                                                                                                                               Pacing:  Traditional:  6 Days   Block: 3 Days

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)
                                (Standard 4:  Analyze the causes and events, and effects of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Age of Exploration)

Humanities
          (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)
                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)
                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.W.4.14   Recognize the practice of slavery and other forms of forced labor experienced during the 13th through 17th centuries in East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, and the Americas.
SS.912.W.6.7:    Identify major events in China during the 19th and early 20th centuries related to imperialism.

SS.912.W.2.22:  Describe
Japan's cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea.

Essential Content

·     The Ming and Qing Dynasties

o        
Foreign Policy
o        
Junks
o        
Transitional Years
o        
Economy, Culture and Society
o        
Decline of the Qing Dynasty

 ·        China and the Europeans

o  
The Portuguese
o  
The British
o  
The Treaty of Nanking
o  
Free Trade
o  
The Opium Trade
o  
The Taiping Rebellion

·        Tokugawa Shogunate

o  
Founding of the Shogunate
o  
Hideyoshi
o  
Ieyasu
o  
Foreign Contact
o  
Life in Tokugawa Japan
o  
Treaty of Kanagawa

Vocabulary/Identification:   Ming Dynasty, Qing dynasty, examination system, Opium Wars, Taiping Rebellion, Beijing, Treaty of Nanjing, Taiwan, Empress Ci Xi, self-strengthening movement, Imperial City, porcelain, Tokugawa Shogunate, Commodore Matthew Perry, Meiji Restoration, Consulate, Edo, The Hermit Kingdom, Isolationism, Dutch Learning, Junks, queue, Hsuan-yeh, philology, extraterritoriality, “unequal” treaties, Yangtze Valley, Hideyoshi, Ieyasu, Treaty of Kanagawa, and consulates.

==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

History Videos (Free)

-Youtube:

Chinese Civilization (17) The Ming Dynasty / Part 01 (25min)

Chinese Civilization (18) The Ming Dynasty / Part 02 (25min)

Chinese Civilization (19) The Qing Dynasty / Part 01 (25min)

Chinese Civilization (20) The Qing Dynasty / Part 02 (25min)

The Taiping Rebellion

Opium Wars (10 min)

The Opium War (Movie)...2:34hrs

The Forbidden City of Ming and Qing Dynasties (1hr)

Shoguns: Kamakura & Ashikaga (12min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(1/6) (9min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(2/6) (9min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(3/6) (9min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(4/6) (9min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(5/6) (9min)

Japanese History of Edo period to Meiji Restoration(6/6) (9min)

Japan Memoirs of a Secret Empire - Documentary (2:45hrs)

Samurai: Japanese Legacy History Channel Documentary) (45min)

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

Japan in the Heian Period and Cultural History: Crash Course World History 227

 

    


VOCABULARY

Ming Dynasty (1368–1644): The ruling dynasty of China for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.

Qing Dynasty (1644–1912): The last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.

Opium Wars: Great Britain and later other European powers attacked & defeated China, creating spheres of influence (territories controlled by them).

Treaty of Nanjing (1842): The Treaty of Nanking formally called the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Emperor of China, was signed on the 29 August 1842 to mark the end of the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing dynasty of China. It was the first of the unequal treaties against the Chinese, as Britain had no obligations in return. In the wake of China's military defeat, with British warships poised to attack the city, representatives from the British and Qing Empires negotiated aboard HMS Cornwallis anchored at Nanjing. On 29 August 1842, British representative Sir Henry Pottinger and Qing representatives, Qiying, Yilibu, and Niujian, signed the treaty. It consisted of thirteen articles and ratification by Queen Victoria and the Daoguang Emperor was exchanged nine months later.

Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864): The Taiping Rebellion was a civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty. It was a millenarian movement led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus. At least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.  The rebel agenda included social reforms such as shared "property in common", equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity.

Queue (hairstyle): The queue or cue is a hairstyle, frequently used in reference to men, in which the hair is worn long and gathered up into a ponytail, often braided. It was worn traditionally by the Manchu people of Manchuria

Junks: A junk is a Chinese sailing ship developed during the Song Dynasty (960–1279) and still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century CE. They evolved in the later dynasties, and were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, and in lesser numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India, but primarily in China, perhaps most famously in Hong Kong. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. The term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards. They vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails

Mandarin: A mandarin was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China. The term is generally applied to the officials appointed through the imperial examination system; it sometimes includes and sometimes excludes the eunuchs also involved in the governance of the two realms. (See also people & language)

Censorate: It was was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China. During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the Censorate was a branch of the centralized bureaucracy, paralleling the Six Ministries and the five Chief Military Commissions, and was directly responsible to the emperor. The censors were "the eyes and ears" of the emperor and checked administrators at each level to prevent corruption and malfeasance, a common feature of that period. Popular stories told of righteous censors revealing corruption as well as censors who accepted bribes. Generally speaking, they were feared and disliked, and had to move around constantly to perform their duties.

 Forbidden City: The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty. It is located in the center of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. It served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years. Built in 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 ha (180 acres). The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, meaning "Great Peaceful Kingdom of Heaven" was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, established by Hóng Xiůquán, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64). Its capital was at Tianjing, which is present-day Nanjing. A self-proclaimed convert to Christianity, Hong Xiuquan led an army that controlled some parts of southern China, with about 30 million people. The rebel Kingdom announced social reforms and the replacement of the powers of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion by his form of Christianity, holding that Hong Xiuquan was the second son of God and the younger brother of Jesus. The Taiping areas were besieged by Qing forces throughout most of the rebellion. The Qing government defeated the rebellion with the eventual aid of French and British forces.

Jesuits: The Society of Jesus is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue. The Jesuits first entered China through the Portuguese possession of Macau where they founded St. Paul's College of Macau.

The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China. The Jesuits made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge and philosophy to Europe. Confucius's works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687. It is thought that such works had considerable influence on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment intrigued by the integration of the Confucian system of morality into Catholicism

 

Heian / Kyoto Japan (794–1185): The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese.

Fujiwara: Fujiwara clan was a powerful family of regents in Japan. The clan originated when the founder, Nakatomi no Kamatari (614–669), was rewarded by Emperor Tenji with the honorific "Fujiwara", which evolved as a surname for Kamatari and his descendants. In time, Fujiwara became known as a clan name. The Fujiwara dominated the Japanese politics of Heian period (794–1185) through the monopoly of regent positions. The family's primary strategy for central influence was through the marrying of Fujiwara daughters to emperors.

Shokyu War or Jōkyū War, also known as the Jōkyū Disturbance or the Jōkyū Rebellion (1221), was fought in Japan between the forces of retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the Hōjō clan, regents of the Kamakura shogunate, whom the retired emperor was trying to overthrow. The main battle was at Uji, just outside Kyōto; this was the third battle to be fought there in less than half a century and it took place in 1221. The Emperor was defeated and the Shogunate was victorious; the retired emperor was exiled..

Kamakura Shogunate (1185–1333): The Kamakura shogunate was a Japanese feudal military government. The heads of the government were the shoguns. The first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan. The last six were minor Imperial princes. These years are known as the Kamakura period. The period takes its name from the city where the Minamoto shoguns lived. After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of Shikken. In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shoguns.

Tokugawa Era / Edo (1600–1868): The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.

Convention of Kanagawa (March 31, 1854): Also known as the Japan–US Treaty of Peace and Amity or the Kanagawa Treaty, it was the first treaty between the United States of America, and the Empire of Japan, then under the administration of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Signed under threat of force, it effectively meant the end of Japan’s 220 year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku), by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American vessels. It also ensured the safety of American castaways and established the position of an American consul in Japan. The treaty also precipitated the signing of similar treaties establishing diplomatic relations with other western powers.

Rangaku ("Dutch Learning"): This was a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national isolation (sakoku). Through Rangaku, some people in Japan learned many aspects of the scientific and technological revolution occurring in Europe at that time, helping the country build up the beginnings of a theoretical and technological scientific base, which helps to explain Japan’s success in its radical and speedy modernization following the opening of the country to foreign trade in 1854.

Meiji Restoration (1868–1912): The Meiji Restoration or Revolution or  Reform, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the restoration established the practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan, which previously was held by the Tokugawa shogunate. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath (considered the first constitution of modern Japan). The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period spanned from 1868 to 1912 and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century.

The Hermit Kingdom: Term applied to a country that walls itself off  from the rest of the world. The Joseon dynasty of Korea was frequently described as a hermit kingdom during the latter part of the dynasty.

NEO-CONFUCIANISM: A moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772-841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties. Neo-Confucianism was an attempt to create a more rationalist and secular form of Confucianism by rejecting superstitious and mystical elements of Taoism and Buddhism that had influenced Confucianism during and after the Han Dynasty. Although the Neo-Confucians were critical of Taoism and Buddhism, the two did have an influence on the philosophy, and the Neo-Confucians borrowed terms and concepts from both. However, unlike the Buddhists and Taoists, who saw metaphysics as a catalyst for spiritual development, religious enlightenment, and immortality, the Neo-Confucians used metaphysics as a guide for developing a rationalist ethical philosophy.

IMPERIAL EXAMINATIONS: An examination system in Imperial China designed to select the best administrative officials for the state's bureaucracy. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree. Established in 605 during the Sui Dynasty, under the Song dynasty the emperors expanded the examinations and the government school system in order to counter the influence of military aristocrats, increasing the number of those who passed the exams. Thus the system played a key role in the emergence of the scholar-officials, who came to dominate society.

BUSHIDO: CODE OF HONOR / ETHICS FOR SAMURAIS IN JAPAN.

DAIMYO: LAND OWNERS; HIGHEST NOBLES CLOSE TO THE SHOGUN.

HARAKIRI / SEPPUKU:  "Stomach-cutting", "abdomen-cutting" is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for samuraiPart of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies (and likely suffer torture or as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves. The ceremonial disembowelment, which is usually part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the abdomen and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing open the abdomen.

SAMURAI / NINJA: "ONE WHO SERVES". WARRIOR / SPY AND ASSASSIN. RONIN: A rōnin  was a samurai with no lord or master during the feudal period (1185–1868) of Japan. A samurai became master less from the death or fall of his master, or after the loss of his master's favor or privilege.

SHOGUN: "GREAT GENERAL". MILITARY AND POLITICAL DICTATOR.

KAMIKAZE: The Kamikaze (Japanese for divine wind), were two storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. Due to growth of Zen Buddhism among Samurai at the time, these were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force. During the WW II they were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks. During World War II, about 3,860 kamikaze pilots were killed, and about 19% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship

Dowager: A widow who holds a title or property—a "dower"—derived from her deceased husband. Some times Regent or Queen Mother.

LEADERS

Yongle Emperor (1360-1424): He was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

Zheng He (1371–1433): A Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa, collectively referred to as the Voyages of Zheng He or Voyages of Cheng Ho from 1405 to 1433.

Hsuan-yeh / Kangxi Emperor (1654-1722): The Kangxi Emperor, which means "The Holy Lord", was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil, south of the Pass (Beijing) and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. Kangxi's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.

Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908): The empress dowager of China who effectively controlled the Chinese government for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908. Selected as an imperial concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son in 1856. With Xianfeng's death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor, and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875.

Matteo Ricci (1552-1610):  An Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions. His1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia.

Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864): A Hakka Chinese who led the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty, establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ.

Dokyo (700 -772): A Japanese monk of the Hossō sect of Buddhism; and he was a political figure in the Nara period

 Lady Murasaki (973-1031): A Japanese novelist, poet and lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court during the Heian period. She is best known as the author of The Tale of Genji, written in Japanese between about 1000 and 1012. Murasaki Shikibu is a nickname; her real name is unknown, but she may have been Fujiwara Takako, who was mentioned in a 1007 court diary as an imperial lady-in-waiting. Heian women were traditionally excluded from learning Chinese, the written language of government, but Murasaki, raised in her erudite father's household, showed a precocious aptitude for the Chinese classics and managed to acquire fluency.

Minamoto Yoritomo (1147 -1199): The founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199.

Hojo Tokimasa (1138-1215): The first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. He was shikken from 1203 until his abdication in 1205.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598): A preeminent daimyo, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Warring States period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616): The founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which virtually ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616.

Saigō Takamori (Takanaga) (1828-1877): He was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, living during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. He has been dubbed the last true samurai. He was born Saigō Kokichi and received the given name Takamori in adulthood. He wrote poetry under the name Saigō Nanshū

Commodore Matthew Perry (1794-1858):  A Commodore of the United States Navy and commanded a number of ships. He served in several wars, most notably in the Mexican–American War and the War of 1812. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Perry was very concerned with the education of naval officers and helped develop an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the US Navy and came to be considered The Father of the Steam Navy in the US.


China


The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

The expulsion of the Mongols from China in 1368 ushered in a new period of peace and prosperity for China under the Ming ("brilliant") Dynasty.

In the realm of foreign policy, several strong emperors aggressively extended Chinese power to the old borders of the Han Empire. 

They put forth a tremendous effort to subdue the nomads (with very limited success) and partially restored the Great Wall.  The fortifications around the first capital, Nanjing, were 60 feet high and extended in a perimeter 20 miles long, the most massive urban fortifications in the world In 1421, the Ming moved the capital to Beijing, only 40 miles from the northern frontier in order to keep a better eye on nomadic movements

Beijing itself became a magnificent city with 40-foot high walls around a perimeter of 14 miles.  Central to the capital was the emperor's palace complex, known as the Forbidden City.  Unlike Western architecture, which reaches ever skyward away from earth, as seen in Gothic cathedrals and skyscrapers, Chinese architecture aims for a more balanced and harmonious effect in the true Taoist spirit. 

The Ming reversed the unpopular policies of the Mongols and reinstated the system of civil service exams for selecting officials, thus restoring the Mandarins to prominence in Chinese society.  They also retained the other features of government used by previous dynasties, such as the Six Ministries and the Censorate.  The Censorate was largely concerned with preventing corruption and abuses by sending traveling censors to the provinces to hear complaints and investigate the conduct of local magistrates.  The overall effect of Ming policies was to provide fair and efficient, though strict, government.

Ming economic policies similarly provided for China's prosperity during this period.  Dikes and canals were repaired, while extensive land reclamation program was instituted, since some regions of China were totally depopulated from earlier Mongol depredations and neglect.  The government offered tax exemptions lasting several years to any peasants who moved into the ruined areas, a policy which effectively revived much of China.  Another policy was to encourage extensive reforestation, probably for shipbuilding purposes.

As a result of the Ming Dynasty's policies, China was again a strong and prosperous empire, making it the dominant political and cultural power in East Asia.  China's cultural vibrancy can be seen in several aspects of the Ming era.  For one thing, architecture flourished, as the Chinese constructed arched bridges and tall pagodas with graceful curved roofs. 

Chinese science and technology at this time was largely bound up with newcomers from the West.  The expulsion of the Mongols in 1368 effectively cut China off from the West for nearly two centuries. However, in the 1500's, the Portuguese and then the Spanish arrived in China by sea.  Most of China's contact with the West at this time was through the Jesuits who skillfully presented Christianity in Confucian terms in order to gain entrance into China and win converts to their faith.  Ironically, the Jesuit leader, Matteo Ricci, won court favor by presenting the emperor with a wind-up clock, which, of course, was ultimately derived from the Chinese water clock.  (He kept in their good graces by keeping the key, so he would be summoned to court each week to rewind the clock.)  Over time, the Jesuits provided the Chinese with a good idea of the state of Western science and technology, especially in the areas of mathematics, cartography, astronomy, and artillery.  Europe learned a great deal from China as well, such as the idea for its first suspension bridge, built in Austria in 1741, over 1000 years after the first such bridge had been built in China.

Extensive maritime expeditions into Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, and as far as East Africa and Arabia, were another feature of the early Ming period.  Between 1405 and 1433, no less than seven major expeditions were launched under the command of the admiral, Zheng He (1371-c.1434).  Zheng He's expeditions comprised thousands of men sailing in ships that were 400 feet long, many times larger than anything Europe, just then embarking on its age of exploration, could put into the water.  The purpose of these expeditions is not entirely clear, probably being more to display Chinese power and influence than cultivate trade, although profitable trade was certainly carried on, especially in fine porcelain, which we today still call china. 

According to ancient Chinese sources, Zheng He commanded seven expeditions. The 1405 expedition consisted of 27,800 men and a fleet of 62 treasure ships supported by approximately 190 smaller ships. The fleet included:

·                     Treasure ships, used by the commander of the fleet and his deputies (nine-masted, about 126.73 meters (416 ft) long and 51.84 meters (170 ft) wide), according to later writers. Such dimension is more or less the shape of a football field. The treasure ships purportedly can carry as much as 1,500 tons. By way of comparison, a modern ship of about 1,200 tons is 60 meters (200 ft) long, and the ships Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World in 1492 were about 70-100 tons and 17 meter (55 ft) long.

·                     Horse ships, carrying tribute goods and repair material for the fleet (eight-masted, about 103 m (339 ft) long and 42 m (138 ft) wide).

·                     Supply ships, containing staple for the crew (seven-masted, about 78 m (257 ft) long and 35 m (115 ft) wide).

·                     Troop transports, six-masted, about 67 m (220 ft) long and 25 m (83 ft) wide.

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