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(From Middle School)

1-Prehistory
2-Ancient Egypt & Mesopotamia
3-Ancient India, China, and Japan
4-Greece
5-Rome
 

(Ninth Grade)

First Nine Weeks

1-Geography
2-Byzantine, Germanic People, Sassanid Empire, Turks, and the Crusades
3-Islam: Empire of Faith
4-Medieval India, China, Japan, and The Mongols

5-Middle Ages in Europe: Medieval Times, The Dark Ages & The Age of Faith
6-African Civilizations, Indian Ocean Trade, Slave Trade

7-Ancient America: Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas.


==>Most of the definitions in these Lecture Notes (Vocabulary and Leaders) and the hyperlinks to obtain extra information, came from / belong to Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. The recommended videos are from YouTube, Annenberg Foundation, Crash Course, Study.com / Educational Portal, Khan Academy, and the History Channel. Many of the Flowcharts are from the Flowofhistory.com, by John "Chris" Butler   <== Thanks to all of them for sharing!


==> From Middle School <==

1-PREHISTORY

Topic 1: The Origins of Agriculture / Neolithic Revolution                                                                                                 

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the  progression and regression of cultures)

 

Content Benchmarks:

IIB1:  Describe and give examples of social, political and economic development from the Paleolithic Age through the Bronze Age.

IIB2L: Distinguish between prehistory and recorded history, and state approximate dates of ancient, medieval, and modern periods.

Essential Content:

·          Paleolithic Age:  Old Stone Age,  Hunter-Gatherers,  Nomads

·          Neolithic Age:  Agricultural Revolution, Domestication of  Animals, Pastoralism, Specialization of Labor, Permanent Settlement

Vocabulary/Identification:   Culture, history, stone age, Paleolithic, Neolithic, foragers, Hunter, Gatherer, Domestication, settlement, Bronze Age, Agricultural Revolution, Pastoralism, Megaliths, Jericho, Catal Huyuk, Metallurgy, Gradual, Prehistory, Fossils, Archeology, Hominids, Homo erectus, Homo Sapiens, The Ice Age

 

==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

Free Videos on History

-Youtube

History of the World in Two Hours:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdLFCz1Y508
The Beginning of the Universe: The Big Bang Theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOz4PkdY7aA
What Caused the Big Bang?: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uabNtlLfYyU
Stars in the Universe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bcz4vGvoxQA  =>Are we the masters of the Universe? How important are we? <= An eye opener!!
BBC Planet of Apemen: Homo Erectus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUliLKSJ4bQ
BBC Planet of Apemen: Neanderthal: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aj-JZnpcSsM
Homo Sapiens: The Birth of Humanity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDiZdDYGaKs
BBC - The Incredible Human Journey. Out of Africa (5 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwa6o-s1Yvs
Theory of Evolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdddbYILel0
Prehistory:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-0dTksls7I

-Study.com  (about 5 minutes each video): Earn College Credits!!

The Last Ice Age: Thawing Ice and New Human Opportunities
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution: Causes and Implications
Development of Hierarchical Structures: Chiefs to Emperors in History
Mystery Cults and the Early Mother Goddess
The Great Flood and Population Migrations
Villages to Cities: How Cities Were Invented
Walls, Roads & Bronze: Tools of Empire Creation
The Horse and Chariot: Tools of Empire Creation
Horse People and Nomadic Pastoralism: What is Civilization?

-Crash Course (10 minutes):

The Agricultural Revolution http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yocja_N5s1I

-Annenberg Learner (28 minutes)

Maps, Time, and World History...Info... Video: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2144

Human Migrations ...Info... Video: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2146

The Dawn of History... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=819

Art History Free Videos:

-Otis College Art History:

Cave Painting...  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OH2bBdT_wAA
Stonehenge...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JjjgM4ueqk

-Khan Academy Art History:

Introduction to Art History: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/introduction-to-art-history
Nude Woman (Venus of Willendorf): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/prehistoric/v/nude-woman--venus-of-willendorf---c--28-000-25-000-b-c-e

 

 

VOCABULARY

1-Culture: The word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:

In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics.

2-Prehistory: It is the period before recorded history. The term "prehistory" can be used to refer to all time since the beginning of the universe, although it is more often used in referring to the period of time since life appeared on Earth, or even more specifically to the time since human-like beings appeared. In dividing up human prehistory, pre-historians typically use the three age system: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age.

3-History: History is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

4-Stone Age: The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years, during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary  Australopithecus,  widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the manufacture of implements with a sharp edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

5-Bronze Age: The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons.

6-Paleolithic: The Paleolithic or Paleolithic Age, Era or Period, is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Hominids such as Australopithecus,  2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene . The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic. The date of the Paleolithic—Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals.

7-Neolithic: The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9,500 BC in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic lead to the beginning of the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution", ending the Bronze Age, developing directly into the Iron Age. The Neolithic is a measured progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and the use of domesticated animals.

8-Forager: A forager or hunter-gatherer is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were hunter-gatherers until around 10,000 years ago. Following the invention of agriculture. Hunter-gatherers have been displaced by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world.

9-Domestication: Domestication or taming is the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control.

10-Pastoralism: Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. It may have a mobile aspect, moving the herds in search of fresh pasture and water.

11-Agricultural Revolution: The Neolithic Revolution is the first agricultural revolution—the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement. Archaeological data indicate that various forms of domestication of plants and animals arose independently in six separated places worldwide between 8,000–5000 BC, with the earliest known evidence found throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of southwestern and southern Asia, northern and central Africa and Central America.

12-Settlement: A settlement is a general term used in archaeology, geography, landscape history and other subjects for a permanent or temporary community in which people live, without being specific as to size, population or importance.

13-Megalith: A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement.

14-Catal Huyuk: It was a very large Neolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date.

15-Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking.

16-Fossils: Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, in rock formations and sedimentary layers is known as the fossil record.

17-Radiocarbon dating: Radiocarbon dating (sometimes simply known as carbon dating) is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years. One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites. The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in 1949.

18-Archeology: It is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record). Archaeology studies human history from the development of the first stone tools in eastern Africa 3.4 million years ago up until recent decades.

19-Hominids: Members of the family of humans; their ancestors. Hominids are included in the super-family of all apes, the Hominoidea, the members of which are called hominoids. Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans. The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago.

20-Australopithecus: Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominids. From the evidence gathered by palaeontologists and archaeologists, it appears that the Australopithecus genus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago. During this time period a number of australopith species emerged, including Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. anamensis, A. bahrelghazali, A. garhi and A. sediba.

21-Homo Habilis: Homo habilis is a species of the Hominini tribe, which lived from approximately 2.33 to 1.4 million years ago, during the Gelasian Pleistocene period.

22-Homo Erectus: It is an extinct species of hominid that originated in Africa—and spread as far as India, China and Java—from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene, about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago.

23-Neanderthal: They are an extinct species of the genus Homo which is closely related to modern humans. They are known from fossils, dating from the Pleistocene period, which have been found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. The species is named after Neandertal ("Neander's Valley"), the location in Germany where it was first discovered. The first humans with proto-Neanderthal traits are believed to have existed in Europe as early as 600,000–350,000 years ago.

24-Homo Sapiens: Humans (Homo sapiens, Latin for "wise man" or "knowing man") are the only living species in the Homo genus of bipedal primates in Hominidae. Anatomically modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago, reaching full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago.

25-Cro-Magnon Man:  This is a name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. Current scientific literature prefers the term European Early Modern Humans (EEMH), to the term "Cro-Magnon". The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiocarbon dated to 43,000 years before present.

26-Ice Age: A generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. More colloquially, "the ice age" refers to the most recent colder period that peaked at the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 20,000 years ago, in which extensive ice sheets lay over large parts of the North American and Eurasian continents.


==>Creationism vs. Big Bang Theory & Theory of Evolution <===


 

==> Please, notice that: Life started in the oceans<==

 Please, notice the order in which each group appeared:

==>Prokaryotes, Plants, Arthropods (Insects), Fish, Reptiles & Birds, and Mammals <==
                                                   This is on the Quiz!!!


GEOLOGICAL ERAS / PERIODS

1-ARCHEOZOIC

2-PROTEROZOIC

3-PALEOZOIC (Primary): BEGINNING OF LIFE (In the Oceans): SILURIAN (430 mill.): Bacterium, Micro Organisms, DEVONIAN (395mill.): Corals, Sponges, Plants (Ferns), CARBONIFEROUS (345-225 mill.): Snails, Insects, Forests.

4-MESOZOIC (Secondary): JURASSIC (190-135 mill.): Fish (Sharks), Reptiles, CRETACEOUS (135-65 mill.): Dinosaurs, First Mammals.

5-CENOZOIC:

5.1--Terciary: 5.1.1-PALEOGENE (65-25mill.) : EOCENE: Lizards, Snakes & OLIGOCENE: Marsupials, Wales, Birds 5.1.2-NEOGENE: MIOCENE (7 mill.): Monkeys, Horses & PLIOCENE (2-1 mill.): Frogs, Bats, Apes

5.2-Quaternary: 5.2.1- PLEISTOCENE (1 mill.-10 thousands): PALEOLITHIC: Glaciers, First Man (Caves, Fire, Nomadic, Language, Tools, Furs, Natural Harvesting) & MESOLITHIC: Sedentary, Hunting, and Fishing. 5.2.2-HOLOCENE (9-5 thousands): NEOLITHIC (Agriculture, Domestic Animals, Cattle, Villages, Plow, Wheel, Social Classes).

 

 


 

 


Scientific Classification of Hominids

Kingdom: Animalia

Class: Mammalia

Order: Primates

Superfamily: Hominoidea

Family: Hominidae (Hominid)

  

Prehistory vs. History

PREHISTORY: Since the beginning of the Universe until the Neolithic; before man learned to write and to leave records, .

STONE AGE: 2.5 Million years ago to 3,500 B.C. Men didn't know how to use metals, only stones.

BRONZE AGE (3,500 - 1,200 BC): Use of Bronze (Copper + Tin).

IRON AGE (1,200 BC - 100 AD): Use of Iron.


Some Key Historical Issues

1-Man vs. Animals: Use of fire, creation and use of tools.

2-Prehistory vs. History: Written records.

3-History: Culture & Power.

4-Ethnicity: Sense of belonging to the group. We and the others. Personal identity.

The family (horde, clan, tribe), the city, the state, the nation.

Conforming vs. Deviating. Loyalty. Friends vs. Foes.

We are the best !!!! We are the most powerful !!! We should rule !!!

5-Sex: Male & Female (Natural categories)

5.1-Sexuality: What is sexual? Being naked, to watch, to touch, to kiss, to hug.

Promiscuity, Incest, Group marriage, Polyandry, Monogamy,

Polygamy. Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bisexual. (Social)

5.2-Gender: Manhood & Womanhood. The Matriarchal & Patriarchal Societies.

Specialization of Labor. Social Roles. (Social)

What sex should lead the family and the society? The weak sex?

6-Religion: Look for answers: Life and Death, Mother Nature, The Universe, etc.

....Hunger and Disease.

....Thinking vs. The Soul / The Spirit

....Specialization: Wizards, Oracles, Priests.

....Creation vs. Evolution.

....Whose God is the True God, the Best God?

.....Religious Intolerance and Religious Wars. Religion & Power.

7-Class: Economic Surplus. Common Property vs. Private Property.

.........Specialization: Leaders, Warriors, Workers, Slaves.

.........Rich and Poor. Economic Status.

..........Privilege & Power. Politics. Who rules?

..........Relationship with regard to the Means of Production. (Social)

8-Race: Defining “biological” or “natural” differences.

Darwinism, Evolution, and Society.

Which race is the best? Inferior races? Racism.

Exploration and Colonization of Africa, America, and Asia.

Colonialism, Imperialism, Eugenics and Nazism. (Social)

9-The White Male Supremacy. The White Man’s Burden.

10-The Systems of Domination & Oppression.
 
 

EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL PRACTICES, THE FAMILY, AND WOMEN’S ROLE

According to:

Bachofen, Johann Jakob (1861). Mother’s Right.

Tylor, Edward Burnett (1865). Researches in the Early History of Mankind.

Giraud-Teulon, Alexis (1874). Origin of the Family.

McLennan, John Ferguson (1876). Studies in Ancient History

Morgan, Lewis H. (1877). Ancient Society.

Lubbock, John (1882). The Origin of Civilization.

Engels, Frederick (1884). The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State.
 
 

Paleolithic / Savagery (2.5-2.6 million years ago to 10,000 BC)

Gathering and hunting. Caves. Nomadic.

Collective ownership, cooperative social relations, equality.

Primitive division of labor between sexes.

Primal or maternal horde. Consanguine family. Incest. Promiscuous sexual relations. Endogamy. Female lineage. Women were the only ascertainable parents, the center and most respected members of the group. Mother’s right.

Maternal clan. Exogamy. Two clans meet for mating. It didn’t involve change of residence or cohabitation. Everything else remained the same.

Group marriage. Every woman belonged equally to every man and, similarly, every man to every woman. Promiscuous relations within the group, but not incest. Clans merged to form a tribe.

Polyandry was also practiced when women were scarce.

Pairing family. Cohabitation of the couple. The community still under cooperative social relations. This form coexisted for a while with the maternal clan and / or group marriages. Marriage could be easily dissolved by either side. Women were still very important and respected.
 
 

First Hominids appeared in Africa.


 

Ice Age

Notice that the northern hemisphere was covered by ice.



Pre-historical Art:
Cave paintings, megaliths, Venus figurines, etc. Beginning of religious ideas?


                                 Stonehenge

Click to See PowerPoints on Prehistoric Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/


Neolithic / Barbarism / Archaic States (10, 000 BC - 3, 500 BC)

Agriculture, domestication of animals / stock-raising, houses, sedentary, metallurgy, and trade.

Economic surplus. Social division of labor (Specialization). Private property, social classes, the state. First urban populations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China. Large-scale projects (irrigation, construction). Slavery.

Patriarchal family. Father’s right; monogamy (only for women), male lineage. Sexual and social oppression of women.

Polygamous family in which wealthy men had several wives, concubines, slaves, and many children.

Civilization:

1-Cities as administrative centers
2-Political system based on territory
3-Domestication of plants and animals. Settled agricultural life.
4-Division of labor or Specialization (leaders, warriors, priests, farmers, hunters, artisans, merchants)
5-Socio-economic status / classes based on existence of a surplus (wealthy, middle class, poor)
6-Monumental buildings
7-System of writing / keeping records
8-Long-distance trade
9-Art & Science


 
HISTORY

ANCIENT (3 500 BC-476 AD)

MEDIEVAL (476 AD-1492)

MODERN (1492-1914)

CONTEMPORARY (1914-TODAY)

 

HUMANITIES

LITERATURE, ARTS, ETHICS, PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, LAW, ORATORY.

 

TYPES OF HISTORY

WORLD HISTORY, REGIONAL HISTORY, NATIONAL HISTORY, LOCAL HISTORY

 

HISTORY'S AUXILIARY SCIENCES

ARCHEOLOGY: It the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).

DEMOGRAPHY: It is the statistical study of human population.

PHILATELY: Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items.

HERALDRY: Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms

NUMISMATICS: Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

PALEOGRAPHY: Paleography is the study of ancient writings. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.

PALEONTOLOGY: Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, including organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments. As a "historical science" it tries to explain causes rather than conduct experiments to observe effects. It study fossils. Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, and shares with archaeology a border that is difficult to define. It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry, mathematics and engineering. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialized sub-divisions, some of which focus on different types of fossil organisms while others study ecology and environmental history, such as ancient climates.

HISTORIOGRAPHY: Historiography is the study of the history and methodology of the discipline of history.

 

SOCIAL SCIENCES

HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMY, PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, POLITICAL SCIENCE, ANTHROPOLOGY (ETHNOLOGY & LINGUISTICS).
 
 

ANCIENT AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS

1-EGYPTIAN EMPIRE

2-KINDOM OF KUSH

3-KINGDOM OF AKSUM

4-THE BANTU PEOPLE

5-MEROE:

6-ASHANTI EMPIRE:

7-GHANA EMPIRE:

8-KINGDOM OF NUMIDIA:

9-LAND OF PUNT:
 
 


2-EGYPT & MESOPOTAMIA

Topic 2: The First River Valley Civilizations                                                                                                                                                         

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

IB1: Give examples of the types of governments, societies, economies, and religions that developed among the river valley civilizations.

IIB4:Compare major individuals, events, and characteristics of historical periods.

IIC17: Examine the continuing conflicts in the Middle East.

IIC18:  Identify causes and effects of various changes in historical development

Essential Content

·          Early Civilizations: Settled Agriculture, Cities, Kings and Trade,  Technology and  Science,  God Priests and   Temples.

·          Mesopotamia: The Fertile Crescent,  Mesopotamian Society, Sumerians & Semites, Growth of City-States, Code of Hammurabi, Writing and Literature:  Cuneiform, Architecture: Ziggurats

·          Egypt: Gift of the Nile, Religion:  Theocracy, The Three Kingdoms:  Old, Middle, New, Achievements: Pyramids, Writing and Education: Hieroglyphics

·          The role of Nomadic Peoples: Pastoral Nomads, Indo-Europeans, Hittites,  

·          The Phoenicians: Alphabet, Trade and the Sea

·          The Children of Israel: Israelites, King Solomon, Palestine, Jerusalem, The Divided Kingdom

·          Judaism: Monotheism, Covenant, Ten Commandments, Prophets

·          Assyrian Empire:  System of Communication,  Army

·          Persian Empire:  Cyrus, Satrapies and satrap, Darius I, Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism

Vocabulary/Identification:   city-state, ziggurat, theocracy, empire, patriarchal, polytheistic, cuneiform, Sumerians, Hammurabi, Code of Hammurabi, Fertile Crescent, Tigris River, Euphrates River, dynasty, pharaoh, mummification, hieroglyphics, bureaucracy, Menes, Hyksos, Hatshepsut, Akhenaton, Ramses II, Cleopatra VII, Indo-Europeans, Hittites, Phoenicians, Israelites, King Solomon, Isiah, Palestine, Jerusalem, Satrapy, Satrap, monarchy, Cyrus, Persians, Darius, Zoraster, Assyrians, Immortals, Zoroastrianism, Ten Commandments, Prophets,

 

===> Please, Watch the following videos (Free) <===
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

Free Videos on History

-Youtube

Guns, Germs, and Steel: Out of Eden. National Geographic:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDezBiaguPY
Engineering an Empire: Egypt (History Channel) ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_ZXJ1Np6QY
Decisive Battles: Kadesh (History Channel, 3 parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnQ_J29wegU&playnext=1&list=PL96DDB4A058CC7B3A
Secrets of Ancient Egypt ...Three (3) Parts... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GaInDIv3-V8

 

-Study.com (each video is about minutes): Earn College Credits!!

 

The Invention of Writing
The History of Money and Rise of Complex Economies
How Religion Developed in the Stone Age and Bronze Age

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

Mesopotamia:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sohXPx_XZ6Y
Egypt: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3Wvw6BivVI

Mesopotamia (Six Parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc8m9DHxH4E
Turning Points in History: Rise of the Cities (Mesopotamia): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-EPqobSsD8&feature=related
Turning Points in History: Hammurabi Code: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDALXORbtR4&feature=related
Turning Points in History. Jerusalem: City of Three Faiths: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7UXbmmH39g&feature=related
Engineering an Empire: Persia (History Channel...5 parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aukC8GBEsU&playnext=1&list=PLECF48AC752F6B61D

-Annenberg Learner (28 minutes)

Ancient Egyptians... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=820
Mesopotamia... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=821

Agricultural and Urban Revolutions (Info)... Video: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2147

Art History Free Videos:

-Khan Academy:

Sumerian Art: Standard of Ur: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/Ancient/v/standard-of-ur--c--2600-2400-b-c-e
Ancient Near East: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/ancient-near-east/a/introduction

Ancient Egypt: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/ancient-egypt/a/introduction
Ptolemaic: Rosetta Stone: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/Ancient/v/rosetta-stone--196-b-c-e

-Otis College Art History:

Mesopotamia... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wl5kUC2EOug
Egypt:...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iI1cvXoIEI0

 

                   ==> For this chapter, please rent & watch the film "The Ten Commandments" (1956). <==


 

 

VOCABULARY

EGYPT

1-NILE DELTA: The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers some 240 km of Mediterranean coastline—and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

2-PHARAOH: Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title means ‘’great house’’ and describes the royal palace. The title of Pharaoh started being used for the king during the New Kingdom, specifically during the middle of the eighteenth dynasty. For simplification, however, there is a general acceptance amongst modern writers to use the term to relate to all periods.

3-CARAVAN or CONVOY: A group of vehicles or camels, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support, though it may also be used in a non-military sense, for example when driving through remote areas.

4-GRANARY: A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. In ancient or primitive granaries, pottery is the most common use of storage in these buildings. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.

5-PYRAMID: A pyramid is a structure in which all of the outer surfaces (excluding the base) are triangular and converge at a single point. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575-2150 B.C. As of 2008, some 135 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. Until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in AD 1311, it was the tallest building in the world.

6-SPHINX: A sphinx is a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head. The Great Sphinx of Giza ("The Terrifying One"), commonly referred to as the Sphinx; it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 meters (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558–2532 BC).

7-SCRIBES: A scribe is a person who writes books or documents by hand as a profession and helps the city keep track of its records. The profession, previously found in all literate cultures in some form, lost most of its importance and status with the advent of printing. The work could involve copying books, including sacred texts, or secretarial and administrative duties such as taking of dictation and the keeping of business, judicial and historical records for kings, nobility, temples and cities.

8-BASIN: A basin is a depression or a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Basins may be formed by various mechanisms.

9- MUMMY: A mummy is a body, human or animal, whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to chemicals, extreme coldness (ice mummies), very low humidity, or lack of air when bodies are submerged in bogs, so that the recovered body will not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back at least to the 1730s. The oldest known naturally mummified human corpse is a decapitated head dated as 6,000 years old, found in 1936. The most famous Egyptian mummies are those of Seti I and Rameses II (13th century BC), though the earliest known Egyptian mummy, nicknamed 'Ginger' for its hair color, dates back to approximately 3300 BC. The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummification, casting of magic spells, and burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the afterlife.

10-HIERATIC: Hieratic refers to a cursive writing system that was used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related. It was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs.

11-EMBALM: The art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for public display at a funeral. The three goals of embalming are thus sanitization, presentation and preservation (or restoration) of a corpse to achieve this effect. Embalming has a very long and cross-cultural history, with many cultures giving the embalming processes a greater religious meaning.

12-PAPYRUS: Papyrus is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus usually grow 2–3 meters (5–9 ft) tall. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty), but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egypt used this plant as a writing material and for boats, mattresses, mats, rope, sandals, and baskets.

13-HIEROGLYPHICS: Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Less formal variations of the script, called hieratic and demotic, are technically not hieroglyphs. Scholars generally believe that Egyptian hieroglyphs came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and were possibly invented under the influence of the latter.

14-BOOK OF THE DEAD: The Book of the Dead is the modern name of an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BC) to around 50 BC. The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the underworld, and into the afterlife. At death a person faced judgment by a tribunal of forty-two divine judges. If they led a life in conformance with the precepts of the Goddess Ma'at, who represented truth and right living, the person is welcomed into the kingdom of Osiris. If found guilty the person is thrown to a "devourer" and didn't share in eternal life. The Book of the Dead was a guide to pass this judgment.

15-OBELISK: It is a tall four-sided narrow tapering monument or column which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, said to resemble a "petrified ray" of the sun-disk. A pair of obelisks usually stood in front of a pylon. Ancient obelisks were often monolithic, whereas most modern obelisks are made of several stones and can have interior spaces. Obelisks were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveler, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found partly hewn from its quarry at Aswan. These obelisks are now dispersed around the world, and fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.

16-HYKSOS: They were an Asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile Delta during the Twelfth dynasty, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt .The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt during the Eleventh dynasty, began their climb to power in the Thirteenth dynasty, and came out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Delta. By the Fifteenth dynasty, they ruled lower Egypt, and at the end of the Seventeenth dynasty, they were expelled.

17-DYNASTY: A dynasty is a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. Historians traditionally consider many sovereign states' history within a framework of successive dynasties, e.g., China, Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire. Much of European political history is also dominated by dynasties.

18-THEOCRACY: Theocracy is the rule by people in positions of political authority all of whom share the same religious beliefs and preferences. Theocracy may manifest in a form of government in which a state is understood as governed by immediate divine guidance provided to ruling clergy or other ruling officials. From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state.

19-EMPIRE: Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples (ethnic groups) united and ruled either by a monarch (emperor, empress) or an oligarchy. Geopolitically, the term empire means a territorially-extreme state, like the extensive Spanish Empire (1500s.) and the British Empire (1800s), in its different forms.

20-BUREAUCRACY: The purpose of a bureaucracy is to successfully implement the actions of an organization or institution (often associated with large entities such as government, corporations, the Catholic Church, and other non-governmental organizations), in achieving its purpose and mission, and the bureaucracy is tasked to determine how it can achieve its purpose and mission with the greatest possible efficiency and at the least cost of any resources

21-NILE RIVER: The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long. It runs through the eleven countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda and Egypt. The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.

MESOPOTAMIA

1-MESOPOTAMIA: Land between rivers:
1.1-Euphrates River: It is
the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia.
1.2-Tigris River:
The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.

2-FERTILE CRESCENT: The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia. The major nation in this region is Iraq, with small portions of Iran near the Persian Gulf and Turkey in the north. More typically the Fertile Crescent includes also the Levantine coast of the eastern Mediterranean, with Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon and the West Bank. Water sources include the Jordan River. Finally, at maximum extent, the Fertile Crescent also may include Egypt and the Nile Valley within it.

3-SUMERIANS, AKKADIANS, ISRAELITES, PHOENICIANS, BABYLONIANS, HITTITES, ASSYRIANS, CHALDEANS, AND PERSIANS.

4-IRRIGATION: Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost.

6-CITY-STATES: A city-state is an independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as a part of another local government. It is a city and an independent nation, with its own army.

7-STYLUS: Pointed tool to write used by the Sumerians.

8-ZIGGURAT: Ziggurats were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. They were used as temples. Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, Iraq; the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Iraq; Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān, Iran; and Sialk near Kashan, Iran.

9-CHARIOT: The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of horse carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples.

10-SATRAP: Governor in a Persian province, under king Cyrus, in the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire.
10.1-SATRAPY: Persian province.

11-ZOROASTRIANISM: Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Persia (Iran). The term Zoroastrianism is, in general usage, essentially synonymous with Mazdaism (the worship of Ahura Mazda, exalted by Zoroaster as the supreme divine authority).

12-ZODIAC: In astronomy, the zodiac  is the ring of constellations that lines the ecliptic, which is the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. In astrology, the zodiac denotes those signs that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. As such, the zodiac is a celestial coordinate system.

13-BARTER SYSTEM: Barter is a method of exchange by which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

14-MONOTHEIST: A one God religion / POLYTHEIST: Religion with many Gods.

15-PALESTINE: A conventional name, among others, used between 450 BC and 1948 AD to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands. Other terms for the same area include Canaan, Zion, the Land of Israel, Syria Palaestina, Southern Syria, Jund Filastin, Outremer, the Holy Land and the Southern Levant.
15.1- JUDAH:
The Kingdom of Judah is thought to have been one of several states which emerged in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age.
15.2-ISRAEL:
According to Biblical tradition, the united Kingdom of Israel was a kingdom that existed in the Land of Israel, a period referred to by scholars as the United Monarchy. Biblical historians date the kingdom from 1020 BCE to  930 BCE, though there are differences of opinion as to exact dates.
15.3-JERUSALEM:
Jerusalem is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In Judaism, Jerusalem has been the holiest city since, according to the Biblical Old Testament, King David of Israel first established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel in c. 1000 BCE, and his son Solomon commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city. In Christianity, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, according to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified in c. 30 CE. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city. It became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah) in 610 CE, and, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later.

17-PROPHET: In religion, a prophet or "foreteller", is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and serves as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.

18-COVENANT: A covenant is a solemn agreement to engage in or refrain from a specified action. It is commonly found in religious contexts, where it refers to sacred agreements between God and human beings.

19-PATRIARCH: A patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This word means "lineage, descent",  by the father's side; it also refers to "leader", "chief", "ruler", "king", etc

20-MARDUK: BABYLONIAN CHIEF GOD (MONSTER WHO SHOULD PROTECT THE CITY: VIPER HEAD, DRAGON BODY, LION/EAGLE LEGS, SCORPION TAIL).

21-REED: Reed is a generic botanical term used to describe numerous tall, grass-like plants of wet places, which are the namesake vegetation of reed beds.

22-WEDGE: A wedge is a triangular shaped tool, a compound and portable inclined plane. It can be used to separate two objects or portions of an object, lift an object, or hold an object in place. It functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular to its inclined surfaces.

23-PROVERB: A proverb is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. If a proverb is distinguished by particularly good phrasing, it may be known as an aphorism. Proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language. Both the Bible (Book of Proverbs) and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe, although almost every culture has examples of its own.

24-RUBBLE: Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size, shape and texture. Rubble naturally found in the soil is known also as 'brash'. Where present, it becomes more noticeable when the land is ploughed or worked.

25-RESEMBLANCE: Likeness or similarity

26-INSCRIPTIONS: Writings, engravings, printings. Text carved on a wall or plaque, such as a memorial or gravestone. The text on a coin.

27-STRUCTURE: A cohesive whole built up of distinct parts. The underlying shape of a solid. The overall form or organization of something. A set of rules defining behavior.

28-REIGN: The exercise of sovereign power. The period during which a monarch rules.

29-COMMISSION: A sending or mission; authorization to do or to accomplish something. An official charge or authority to do something, often used of military officers. A body or group of people, officially tasked with carrying out a particular function. A fee charged by an agent or broker for carrying out a transaction.

30-HEW: To cut or to chop away; to whittle down; to mow down. To shape; to form.

31-QUARRY: A site or pit for mining stone, limestone or slate.

32-VESTIBULE: A passage, hall or room, such as a lobby, between the outer door and the interior of a building; entrance hall or foyer.

33-ABLUTION: The act of washing or cleansing the body, or some part of it, as a religious rite.

34-PARTITION: A partition is a term used in the law of real property to describe an act, by a court order or otherwise, to divide up a concurrent estate into separate portions representing the proportionate interests of the tenants. Under the common law, any tenant who owns an undivided concurrent interest in land can seek such a division. In some cases, the parties agree to a specific division of the land; if they are unable to do so, the court will determine an appropriate division. Division of a country.

35-CUNEIFORM: Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC . Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hattic, Hurrian, and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and by the 2nd century AD, the script had become extinct. Cuneiform documents were written on clay tablets, by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform ("wedge shaped").

36-INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia, and historically also predominant in Anatolia.

37-IMMORTALS: The "Immortals" was the name given by Herodotus to an elite force of soldiers who fought for the Achaemenid Empire. This force performed the dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army during the Persian Empire's expansion and during the Greco-Persian Wars. Its Persian name may have been Anûšiya ('companions'). Herodotus describes the 'Immortals' as being heavy infantry that were kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men. He claimed that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded or sick member was immediately replaced with a new one, maintaining the cohesion of the unit.

38-TEN COMMANDMENTS: The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, is a text in the Judaic and Christian bibles in which God gives religious and moral instruction to the people of Israel from the mountain referred to as mount Sinai. The commandments are said in the bible to be spoken by God to those present at mount Sinai, and subsequently to be inscribed by God with his finger on two stone tablets, which God gave to Moses. The Ten Commandments are regarded as a moral foundation in Judaism and Christianity. The text of the Ten Commandments appears as two similar passages of length 14–15 verses: in Exodus 20:2–17 and Deuteronomy 5:6–21.


 
Major Egyptian Pharaohs

OUTSTANDING PEOPLE / LEADERS OF MESOPOTAMIA

1-SARGON I: KING OF AKKAD

2-HAMMURABI: KING OF BABYLONIA

3-ASSURBANIPAL : KING OF ASSYRIA

4-NEBUCHADREZZAR II : KING OF CHALDEA / BABYLON II

5-CYRUS II, THE GREAT: KING OF PERSIA

6-DARIUS: KING OF PERSIA
 

7-ABRAHAM: PATRIARCH, PROPHET, AND FOUNDER OF THE FIRST ONE-GOD RELIGION. FATHER (W/SLAVE) OF ISHMAEL (FIRST MUSLIM) AND (W/SARA) ISAAC (FIRST JEW). ORIGIN OF 3 MAJOR “MODERN” RELIGIONS. HE LIVED 175 YEARS (GENESIS).

8-MOSES: PRINCE OF EGYPT, SHEPHERD, PROPHET, LEADER OF THE HEBREW PEOPLE. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. HE LIVED 120 YEARS (OLD TESTAMENT).

9-SAUL: First king of Israel.

10-DAVID: Second king of Israel.

11-SOLOMON: Third king of Israel.

12-ISIAH: Isaiah was a prophet in the 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah. Jews and Christians consider the Book of Isaiah a part of their Biblical canon. Christians believe that Isaiah prophesied the virgin birth of Jesus Christ (Isaiah 7:14).

13-ALEXANDER THE GREAT: MACEDONIAN / GREEK EMPEROR


 

CURIOSITIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT

1-THE EGYPTIAN EMBALMER’S ART ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS:

DRAW OUT PART OF THE BRAINS THROUGH THE NOSTRILS WITH AN IRON HOOK AND THE OTHER PART BY THE INFUSION OF DRUGS.

MAKE AN INCISION IN THE SIDE TO TAKE OUT ALL THE BOWELS.

CLEANSE AND RINSE IT WITH PALM WINE.

SPRINKLE THE BODY WITH POUNDED PERFUME.

FILL THE BELLY WITH PURE MYRRH, CASSIA, AND OTHER PERFUMES AND SEW IT UP.

STEEP THE CORPSE IN NATRON (SILICATE OF SODIUM AND ALUMINUM) LEAVING IT UNDER FOR SEVENTY DAYS.

WASH THE BODY AND WRAP IT IN BANDAGES OF WAXEN CLOTH, SMEARING IT WITH GUM (AS GLUE).
 
2-HIGH CLASS EGYPTIAN PRACTICED INCEST TO PRESERVE THE PURITY OF THE BLOOD. RICH MEN -INCLUDING THE PHARAOH- MARRIED THEIR SISTERS AND SOMETIMES THEIR DAUGHTERS. HOWEVER, THEY ALL HAD HAREMS, SOME OF THEM FORMED FOR HUNDRED OF YOUNG WOMEN.

3-RAMSES II HAD 150 CHILDREN. HE LIVED 99 YEARS.
 
4-BUILDING A PYRAMID TOOK 20-30 YEARS AND NEEDED THE WORK OF MORE THAN 100, 000 SLAVES. IN KHUFUS’S PYRAMID THERE ARE 21/2 MILLION STONE BLOCKS. SOME BLOCKS WEIGH 150 TONS, ALTHOUGH THE AVERAGE WEIGH IS 2 TONS. IT IS 481 FEET TALL (160 METERS = LIKE A 80 STORY BUILDING). EVERY PYRAMID HAD A SECRET PASSAGE WAY FOR THE CARCASS OF THE KING.
 
5-“ALL THE WORLD FEARS TIME, BUT TIME FEARS PYRAMIDS”.
 
6-SOMETIMES WOMEN WERE OFFERED TO “SACRED” ANIMALS (GODS) AS SEXUAL MATES. THE BULL AND THE GOAT -OSIRIS- RECEIVED THIS HONOR. THEY REPRESENTED THE SEXUAL CREATIVE POWER. YOUNG AND BEAUTIFUL WOMEN WERE FORCED TO HAVE COITUS WITH THOSE ANIMALS.

7-CHAMPOLLION, ONE OF THE NAPOLEONS’ SERVANTS, USING THE “ROSETTA STONE” AND AN INSCRIPTION ABOUT PTOLEMY & CLEOPATRA (GREEK & HIEROGLYPHICS), SPENT 20 YEARS (1798-1818) TO DECIPHER THE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET (MEANING OF THE HIEROGLYPHICS).
 

Egyptian Historical Periods / Dynasties

Pre-dynastic Period (Prior to 3100 BC)

Archaic Period (1st - 2nd Dynasty)

Old Kingdom (3rd - 6th Dynasty)

First Intermediate Period (7th - 11th Dynasty)

Middle Kingdom (12th - 13th Dynasty)

Second Intermediate Period (14th - 17th Dynasty)

New Kingdom (18th - 21st Dynasty)

Third Intermediate Period (22nd - 25th Dynasty)

Late Period (26th - 30th Dynasty)

 

           

-CIVILIZATION THAT LASTED MORE THAN 3000 YEARS: 30 SEPARATED DYNASTIES.
 
-DIFFERENT CAPITALS: MEMPHIS, THEBES, AND AKHENATEN.


 

-NILE VALLEY, A NARROW PASSAGE THROUGH THE DESERT (UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT). THE NILE FLOWS FROM SOUTH (UPPER) TO NORTH (LOWER); IT IS THE LONGEST RIVER IN THE WORLD. THE DELTA REGION WAS SWAMPY (CROCODILES AND HIPPOPOTAMUSES).
 

Major Events

1-Pre-dynastic Period (Prior to 3200 BC):
Period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy with King Narmer / Menes. Unification of Lower and Upper Egypt in 3150 BCE. Capital city was located at Abydos.

2-Old Kingdom (2575-2134 BCE):
The royal capital moved to Memphis. This period is frequently referred to as the Age of the Pyramids.

3-Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BCE):
The capital city was located at Thebes.  Senusret II (1897-1878 BCE) improved trade with Nubia, Palestine and the Levant. His successor, Senusret III (1878-1839 BCE), was a warrior-king. He led his troops deep into Nubia, and built a series of massive forts throughout the country to establish Egypt's formal boundary with the unconquered areas of the territory. At the end of this period, the Hyksos made their appearance and ruled Lower and Middle Egypt for 108 years (1648–1540 BCE).

4-Kush (Nubia ) conquered southern Egypt: 1550-1532 (Allied with the Hyksos)

5-New Kingdom (1532-1070 BCE):
It was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the zenith of its power. Destruction of the kingdom of Kush and its capital Kerma. Egypt expanded far south into Nubia and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought against the Hittites for control of modern-day Syria. This period included some of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs (Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramses II, the Great). Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypt's external trade, sending a commercial expedition to the land of Punt (northern Ethiopia). Thutmose III ("the Napoleon of Egypt") expanded Egypt's army, creating the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Aten and whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as history's first instance of monotheism. Ramses II (regarded as Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh) won the Battle of Kadesh, defeating the Hittites, had many wives and concubines (the most famous being Nefertari), sired many children, built extensively throughout Egypt and Nubia (including the Temple of Abu-Simbel), and lived a very long life. The Valley of the Kings (west bank of the Nile, across from Thebes / Luxor) replaced the Pyramids.

6-Decline of Egyptian control in Nubia: 1000 BCE
7-Kush (Nubia) controled Egypt: 712-660 BCE (Napata)
8-Assyrian conquest of Egypt: 671-610 BCE. Saite Kings: 610-526 BCE
9-
Achaemenid / Persian Egypt: 525-332 BCE
10-Kingdom of Meroe (Nubia): 300 BCE – 350 CE. Candace (Several Queens).
11-Ptolomaic Egypt (Cleopatra): 305-30 BCE
12-Roman Egypt: 30 BCE-324 CE
13-Byzantine Egypt: 324 (Constantine I) - 639 (Arabian invasion)

 

EGYPTIAN GODS / MYTHOLOGY:

.OSIRIS (GOD OF THE AFTERLIFE)

.ISIS (OSIRIS WIFE, GODDESS OF MATERNITY) (SNAKE HEAD)

.HORUS (SON OF OSIRIS/ISIS, LIVING GOD=PHARAOH) (FALCON HEAD)

.ANUBIS (SON OF OSIRIS / ISIS, GOD OF FUNERALS / EMBALMMENT; WOLF HEAD)

.HAPI (GOD OF NILE)

.AMON-RA (GOD OF SUN)

SET (DESERT, CHAOS)

HATHOR (MILK)

SOBEK (CROCODILE)

PTAH (CRAFTMEN, PYRAMID BUILDERS)

THOTH (WRITING, WISDOM)

MA'AT (TRUTH & JUSTICE)

Osiris Isis Set Anubis Horus Hapi
Ptah Hathor Ra Sobek Thoth Ma'at


 

-HUGE TEMPLES WERE BUILT DURING THE MIDDLE AND NEW KINGDOMS (LUXOR, KARNAK, AMON, AND ABU-SIMBEL)

   
                      Abu-Simbel                                                                                                               Luxor

-PYRAMIDS WERE PHARAOHS' TOMBS, THEIR HOMES FOR ETERNITY (THEY MUST LAST FOREVER). 100,000 SLAVES WORKED FOR 20-30 YEARS TO BUILD SOME OF THEM. LATER, THE VALLEY OF KINGS REPLACED THE PYRAMIDS.

    

 

THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS

-THE BOOK OF THE DEAD AND THE PROCESS OF MUMMIFICATION WERE VERY IMPORTANT TO PASS THE JUDGMENT OF OSIRIS.

-THE NILE FLOODED EVERY YEAR. IT WAS THE CENTER OF EGYPTIAN ECONOMY AND DAILY LIFE.. THEY USED THE WATER TO IRRIGATE THE FIELDS.

-COMMON EGYPTIANS LIVED IN MUD-BRICK HOUSES IN SMALL VILLAGES. TRADERS TRAVELED ALONG THE RIVER OR CROSSED THE DESERT IN CAMELS' CARAVANS.

-THE EGYPTIANS WERE GOOD MATHEMATICIANS, RESEARCHED THE ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BODY, WERE GOOD PHYSICIANS, CREATED MANY DRUGS AND MEDICINES, AND MASTERED THE EMBALMING TECHNIQUES. THE HIEROGLYPHICS WERE THEIR WRITING SYSTEM; THEY USED PAPYRUS MADE OF REED TO WRITE.

 

EGYPTIAN ART Click to See  PowerPoints on Egyptian Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/

   

-THE EGYPTIANS WERE ALSO WARRIORS & CONQUERORS.

 

Battle of Kadesh (1274 BC)
  The Chariot

-IN 1750 B.C., THE HYKSOS ATTACKED, OCCUPIED, AND RULED EGYPT FOR 150 YEARS. AFTER THE HYKSOS WERE EXPELLED IN 1570 BC, PHARAOHS WERE STRONG AGAIN AND THEIR ARMIES CONQUERED MANY TERRITORIES.

EGYPTIAN COSTUMES

 

ACHIEVEMENTS OF MESOPOTAMIA
 

 

ART OF MESOPOTAMIA       Click to See PowerPoints on Near East Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/


  

MAJOR EVENTS

-MESOPOTAMIA MEANS "LAND BETWEEN RIVERS" : TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES. THIS REGION (FERTILE CRESCENT) WAS THE CRADLE OF DIFFERENT CIVILIZATIONS

 

Mesopotamia / Fertile Crecent

 1-Sumer: First cities, First System of Writing (Cuneiform). The wheel, sail, potter wheel, first schools, etc.
Dynasties of Kish, Uruk, Ur, Awan, Lugash, Adab, Mari, and Akshak: 2900s - 2300s BCE.
Gilgamesh (Uruk): 2600

 2-Akkadian Empire (King Sargon): 2350-2230 BCE.

 3-Babylon:

3.1-Amorites: 1900s – 1600s BCE: Hammurabi (1792 - 1750). First Code of Law. Marduk.

3.2-Kassites: 1595 – 1185 BCE
3.3-Hittites: 1531 BCE
3.4-Assyrians: 1224 - 1217 BCE

 4-Neo-Assyrian Empire (Ashur): 911 - 612 BCE. The New Army. King  Ashurbanipal.

Combined forces of Chaldeans (New Babylon) & Medes destroyed Assyrian Empire (612).

 5-Israel: First monotheist religion.

5.1-Saul (1020 BCE): First King of Israel.

5.2-David (1000 – 960 BCE)

5.3-Solomon (960 – 920 BCE)

5.4-Split: Israel (North) & Judah (South)

5.5-Assyrians destroyed Israel: 721. Judah survived a little bit longer.

5.6-Nebuchadnezzar (New Babylonian Empire / Chaldeans) captured Jerusalem: 587 BCE (Diaspora started)

 6-Phoenician City-States (Canaanites): 1200 – 500 BCE. Byblos, Tyre, Sidon. Carthage. First Alphabet. Sailors, traders.

6.1-Tyre captured by Assyrian Empire: 701 BCE

6.2-Punic Wars: 264 and 146 BCE. Rome vs. Carthage.

 7-Neo-Babylonian Kingdom: 626 – 539 BCE. King Nebuchadnezzar. The Hanging Gardens. The constellations of the Zodiac. The seven days week. 

 Hittites

 Anatolia / Asia Minor (Hattusha): 1700 – 1200 BCE. First to use iron; the chariots. Battle of Kadesh against Egypt.

 Persian / Achaemenid Empire

 1-Kings Cyrus the Great, Darius and Xerxes: 550–330 BCE. The empire included Afghanistan and Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace,  Mesopotamia, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Phoenicia, Syria, and ancient Egypt.

Satrapies / satrap, roads, taxes, Zoroastrianism.

2-Greco-Persian Wars:

2.1-Persian invasions of the Greek mainland: 490 & 480-479 BCE

2.2-Alexander: Battle of Gaugamela: 331 BCE.

 


 


Marduk


The Winged Bull of Babylon

 

HITTITES (1750-1180 BCE) The Hittite kingdom is conventionally divided into three periods, the Old Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1750–1500 BC), the Middle Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1500–1430 BC) and the New Hittite Kingdom (the Hittite Empire proper, ca. 1430–1180 BC). The Hittites were the people of Anatolia.

Capital City: Hattusa in north-central Anatolia.

The Hittite empire reached its height ca. the 14th century BC, encompassing a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as far south as the mouth of the Litani River (in present-day Lebanon), and eastward into upper Mesopotamia. The Hittites were the first to use iron to make tools and weapons. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots. By the mid-14th century BC carving out an empire that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After ca. 1180 BC, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until the 8th century BC.



                         THE PHOENICIANS CREATED THE FIRST ALPHABET

 

HEBREWS (1200 BC.)

1-Saul: The first king of the united Kingdom of Israel (reigned 1049 BC – 1007 BC) according to the Hebrew Bible. He was anointed by the prophet Samuel. He suicidally fell on his sword in battle against Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and David, who eventually prevailed.

2-David: The second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible and, according to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, an ancestor of Jesus Christ. He is depicted as a righteous king, although not without fault, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician and poet, traditionally credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms. Edwin Thiele dates his life to c. 1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c. 1010–1003 BC, and his reign over the united Kingdom of Israel c. 1003–970 BC.

3-Solomon: He was, according to the Book of Kings and the Book of Chronicles, a King of Israel; according to the Talmud, one of the 48 prophets. He is identified as the son of David and is described as the third king of the united monarchy, and the final king before the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah split; following the split his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. The Hebrew Bible credits Solomon as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, and portrays him as great in wisdom, wealth, and power, but ultimately as a king whose sin, including idolatry and turning away from God, leads to the kingdom being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends.

4-Split: Israel (North) & Judah (South)

5-Assyrians destroyed Israel: 721 BCE. Judah survived a little bit longer.

6-Nebuchadnezzar II (New Babylonian Empire / Chaldeans) captured Jerusalem: 587 BCE (Diaspora started)

 


              JERUSALEM & THE FIRST TEMPLE


                                 David vs. Goliath

 

The Chaldean Empire


                                                                                                         Ishtar Gate


The Hanging Gardens of Babylon


Babel Tower

 

The Median Empire (728-550 BCE)

Iran: Land of the Aryans. Limited info from within, but from the Greeks. Mostly mountains and deserts. Never had a dense population. Iranian people: Medes & the Parsa (Persians). Medes / Kurds. Together with the Chaldeans defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

Achaemenid / Persian Empire (550–330 BCE)

Cities: Persepolis, Susa, and Sardis

Persian ruler (Achaemenid) Cyrus (590-530 BCE) married a Median princess. He shared key gov. positions among both groups. Patriarchal family. Classes: warriors, priests (Magi), and peasants. Expanded the empire greatly: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, western coast of Greece. Babylon surrendered without a fight. Cambyses (???-522 BCE), Cyrus’ son, added Egypt to the empire. Darius I (522-486 BCE), seized the throne when Cambyses died. He had skills, energy and ruthlessness. Medes played a lesser role. Expanded the empire from India to Europe, the largest in the world at that time. Great ethnic diversity. Divided the empire into twenty (20) provinces, each under a satrap (governor), related to the royal family by marriage. They had to collect taxes and send them to the emperor. Decentralized government. Well-maintained and patrolled system of roads. Garrisons at key points. Susa was the administrative capital city. Royal inspectors traveled throughout the empire to inform the king. Metal coins to facilitate trade. Elite women were politically influential, had substantial property, and traveled a lot. The king and the court became a center of luxury and power. Darius referred to everyone as “my slaves” and called himself the “King of Kings”. Prisoners of war had to work in construction projects. He began the construction of Persepolis, which was finished by his son Xerses. A new religion was initiated by Zoroaster (????) with his Gathas: Zoroastrianism (one supreme deity): The world was created by Ahuramazda, the wise lord, and was threatened by Angra Mainyu, the hostile spirit. The struggle between good and evil. Humanity is a participant in that cosmic struggle. Mithra, one of the old deities from Persian polytheist past. Struggle between Persia and Greece: 546-323.


                              Zoroastrianism

Persia After Alexander


The Seleucid Empire (312-60 BCE)

Seleucus (one of Alexander generals) established himself in Babylon in 312 initiating the Seleucid Empire It included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkmenistan and Pamir. Seleucus invaded India (modern Punjab Pakistan) in 305 BC, confronting Chandragupta Maurya. At the end they signed a treaty. The peace was complemented by a "marriage alliance". Towards the end of Antiochus II's reign (261-246), various provinces simultaneously asserted their independence, such as Bactria under Diodotus, Parthia under Arsaces, and Cappadocia under Ariarathes III. Greco-Bactrian kingdom (245-125).

The Iranian kingdom or  Parthian Empire was located south-east of the Caspian Sea. The Parthians were consummate horsemen, known for a military tactic called the Parthian shot. They ended the Hellenization of Iran. The Empire also became a rival state of the powerful Roman Empire. In 139 BC, the Parthian king Mithridates I captured the Seleucid monarch Demetrius II Nicator, holding him captive for ten years while Parthian troops overwhelmed Mesopotamia and Media. The empire was not very centralized. There were several languages, many people, and a number of different economic systems. This was a key to its survival. In the 2nd century CE, the most important capital, Ctesiphon, was captured no less than three times by the Romans (in 116, 165 and 198), but the empire survived because there were other centers of power.

The Sassanid Empire (226-651 BCE)

Sassanid Empire under Khosrau II in 620

Dark green: Traditional borders.
Medium green: Contested territory.
Light green: Territory annexed during war with the Byzantines (7th century).

 

 

 

The Sassanid dynasty was founded by Ardashir I after defeating the last Parthian king and ended when the Islamic conquerors entered its territory (Caliphates). The Sassanid Empire's traditional territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia. The Sassanids called their empire Eranshahr "Empire of the Aryans (Persians)"

COSTUMES OF MESOPOTAMIA & PERSIA


 


3-Ancient India, China, Japan

Topic 2: The First River Valley Civilizations

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

IB1: Give examples of the types of governments, societies, economies, and religions that developed among the river valley civilizations.

IB2: Discuss the role of geography in the development of classical Indian and Chinese Civilizations.

IIC6: Trace the developments of the dynastic cycles in Chinese Civilizations.

IIC18:  Identify causes and effects of various changes in historical development

Essential Content        

Vocabulary/Identification: monsoon, Sanskrit, caste system, reincarnation, dharma, karma, yoga, Buddhism, Nirvana, Aryans, Siddhartha Gautama, Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, Hindu Kush, Ganges River, Mandate of Heaven, aristocracy, Filial Piety, Confucianism, Legalism, Taoism, Daoism, Silk Roads, epitaphs, foot-binding, Empress Wu, civil service exam, paper money, movable type, Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Shogun, Daimyo, Zen, seppuku, samurai, Mongols, Genghis Khan, Khanate, The Golden Horde,

            

o         ==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
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Free Videos on History

-Youtube

Engineering an Empire: China: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9evCYVir5k
China, Dynasties of Power: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZD_KTphK30
Ancient Indian History - Indus Valley Civilization: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywzVUEzmK6M
The Story of India: BBC documentary series (6 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DHhPvbaV68

-Crash Course:

Indus Valley: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM
Buddha & Ashoka:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Nn5uqE3C9w
2,000 Years of Chinese History! The Mandate of Heaven and Confucius: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylWORyToTo4
The Silk Road and Ancient Trade: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vfe-eNq-Qyg

-Annenberg (28 minutes each)

Early Belief Systems (Info) .....Video: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2148
Order and Early Societies (Info)... Video:
http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=2149

Art History Free Videos:

-Khan Academy:

 

Buddhist Art: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/buddhist-art/a/the-historical-buddha

 

Ancient Chinese Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WPmED0GbYUs

Ancient Chinese Statues: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbsNy4MmEtY

India's Achievements - Ancient & Medieval India ( Art, Paintings, Sculptures, and Literature): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0Xo1tRJNPg

 

 

VOCABULARY

1-MONSOON: Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally-changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term was first used in English in British India (now India, Bangladesh and Pakistan) and neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.

2-HIMALAYAS: The Himalayan mountain system is the world's highest, and home to the world's highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders, which include Mount Everest and K2. The main Himalayan range runs west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, forming an arc 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long, which varies in width from 400 km (250 mi) in the western Kashmir-Xinjiang region to 150 km (93 mi) in the eastern Tibet-Arunachal Pradesh region. The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges, with the northernmost, and highest, known as the Great or Inner Himalayas.

3-KYBER PASS: The Khyber Pass, altitude: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world. Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal and it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Koh mountains. Darius I, Alexander the Great, and Genghis Khan all used the Khyber Pass, along with Israelites, Arabs, and Europeans of the ancient world.

4-HINDU KUSH: The Hindu Kush is an 800 km (500 mile) mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan.

5-RIVERS:
5.1-INDUS:
The Indus River ("Father of Rivers"; "Blue Waters" and "Lion River") is a major river which flows through Pakistan, as well as India and China. Center of oldest civilization of India.
5.2-GANGES:
A trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The Ganges River, 2,525 km (1,569 mi), rises in the western Himalayas and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. By discharge it ranks among the world's top 20 rivers. The Ganges basin is the most heavily populated river basin in the world, with over 400 million people and a population density of about 1,000 inhabitants per square mile (390 /km2).
5.3-YELLOW:
The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 kilometers (3,395 mi) Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea.
5.4-YANGTZE:
The Yangtze is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for 6,418 kilometers (3,988 mi) from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the biggest rivers by volume of water in the world. The Yangtze drains one-fifth of China's land area and its river basin is home to one-third of China's population.

6-SILT: Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay derived from soil or rock. Silt may occur as a soil or as suspended sediment (also known as suspended load) in a surface water body. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body.

7-HINDUISM: ARYANS’ RELIGION (1500 BC). MAIN RELIGION OF INDIA.

8-CASTE / VARNA SYSTEM: Caste / Varna is an elaborate and complex social system that combines elements of endogamy, occupation, culture, social class, tribal affiliation and political power. It should not be confused with race or social class, e.g. members of different castes in one society may belong to the same race. Usually, but not always, members of the same caste are of the same rank, occupation, and/or economic position, and typically have mores which distinguish it from other groups. The word caste can also just generally refer to any rigid system of cultural or social distinctions. Brahmans: Priests, the highest caste; Kshatriyas: warriors; Vaisyas: farmers, cattle-herders and artists; Sudras: group serving the other three castes; Untouchables: lowest caste.

9-ARYANS: NOMADIC WARRIORS FORM THE NORTHWEST (PERSIA).

10-REINCARNATION: Reincarnation is believed to occur when the soul or spirit, after the death of the body, comes back to life in a new form, such as another animal or anything that is living. However, once born sometime things from a person's previous life are forgotten. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions, such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism; the Buddhist concept of rebirth is also often referred to as reincarnation.

11-SANSKRIT: LANGUAGE OF HINDU DOCUMENTS AND BOOKS, LANGUAGE OF BRAHMANS.

12-MAJOR BOOKS OF HINDUISM: -VEDAS: BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE; -MAHABHARATA: EPIC POEMS AND MYTHS; -RAMAYANA EPIC POEM ON RAMA = VISHNU.

13-KARMA: MERITS / DEMERITS IN LIFE. THE REINCARNATION.

14-DHARMA: Dharma means Law or Natural Law (as in the natural order of things) and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the context of Hinduism, it refers to one's personal obligations, calling and duties, and a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, caste, class, occupation, and gender

15-YOGA: Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India, whose goal is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility. The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

16-NIRVANA: Nirvāṇa is a central concept in Indian religions. It is the state of being free from suffering. In Hindu philosophy, it is the union with the Supreme being through moksha. The word literally means "blowing out" -referring in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of greed, hatred, and delusion.

17-BUDDHISM: RELIGION ORIGINATED IN INDIA (530 BC) THAT MIGRATED TO EAST ASIA.

18-STUPAS: A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship.

19-ANCESTOR: An ancestor is a parent or a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth.

20-CONFUCIANISM (500’s BC): GROUP OF MORAL AND POLITICAL IDEAS / PHILOSOPHY IN CHINA. (RESPECT, LOYALTY, OBEDIENCE, ORDER, AND RULE. FAMILY AND GOVERNMENT. “NEVER DO TO OTHERS WHAT YOU DON’T WANT THEM TO DO TO YOU”).

21-TAOISM - DAOISM (600’s BC): PHILOSOPHY THAT ORIGINATED IN CHINA: THE WAY TO A GOOD LIFE IS TO LIVE SIMPLY, WITH LIBERTY, AND CLOSE TO NATURE. NOT RULES OR GOVERNMENT. TAO= UNIVERSE; FOLLOW THE NATURAL INSTINCTS.

22-YIN-YANG: THE OPPOSITE FORCES THAT RULE THE UNIVERSE ACCORDING TO TAOISM (FEMALE/MALE, DARK/LIGHT, WATER/FIRE, HOT/COLD )

23-MEDITATION: Meditation refers to any of a family of practices in which the practitioner trains his or her mind or self-induces a mode of consciousness in order to realize some benefit.

24-THREE OBEDIENCES: Women have to obey their fathers before marriage, then their husbands, and in case the husband dies, the oldest son.

25-MANDATE OF HEAVEN: The Mandate of Heaven is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers. It is similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimize rule from divine approval; however, unlike the divine right of kings, the Mandate of Heaven is predicated on the conduct of the ruler in question. The Mandate of Heaven postulates that heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, as defined by the Five Confucian Relationships, but would be displeased with a despotic ruler and would withdraw its mandate, leading to the overthrow of that ruler. The Mandate of Heaven would then transfer to those who would rule best. The mere fact of a leader having been overthrown is itself indication that he has lost the Mandate of Heaven.

26-FILIAL PIETY: In Confucian ideals, filial piety is one of the virtues to be held above all else: a respect for the parents and ancestors.

27-LEGALISM: In Chinese history, Legalism was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period. Legalism was a utilitarian political philosophy that did not address higher questions like the nature and purpose of life. The school's most famous proponent and contributor Han Fei Zi  believed that a ruler should use the following three tools to govern his subjects:

28-CHINESE CIVIL SERVICE: One of the oldest examples of a civil service based on meritocracy is the Imperial bureaucracy of China. During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) the xiaolian system of recommendation by superiors for appointments to office was established. In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit.

29-KAMI: Kami is the Japanese word for the spirits, natural forces, or essence in the Shinto faith.

30-SHINTO: "THE WAY OF THE GODS". ANCIENT JAPANESE RELIGION.

31-NIPPON: JAPAN.

32-MARTIAL ARTS: Martial arts are extensive systems of codified practices and traditions of combat, practiced for a variety of reasons, including self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, as well as mental and spiritual development.

33-FRUGALITY: Frugality has been defined by modern behavioral scientists as the tendency of acquiring goods and services in a restrained manner, and resourcefully using already owned economic goods and services, to achieve a longer term goal. Dictionary definitions of frugality focus on being sparing, thrifty, prudent or economical in the use of consumable resources such as food, time or money, avoiding waste, lavishness or extravagance.

34-STATUS: Status is the honor or prestige attached to one's position in society (one's social position). It may also refer to a rank or position that one holds in a group.

35-DYNASTY: A dynasty is a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. Historians traditionally consider many sovereign states' history within a framework of successive dynasties, e.g., China, Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire. Much of European political history is also dominated by dynasties.

 

LEADERS / PERSONALITIES

Siddharta  Gautama (563-483 BCE): Siddhartha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from ancient India who founded Buddhism. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha; "Buddha" means the "awakened one" or "the enlightened one."

Confucius (551-479 BCE): Confucius, literally "Master Kong", (28 September 551 BC – 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism or Taoism during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220). Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism

Lao-Tze (5th century BCE): Lao-Tze was a mystic philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism (Daoism). He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of the Taoist religion, which often refers to him as "One of the Three Pure Ones". Lao-Tze  means "old master" or "old one", and is generally considered honorific. According to Chinese tradition, Lao-Tze lived in the 6th century BCE. Historians variously contend that he is a synthesis of multiple historical figures, that he is a mythical figure, or that he actually lived in the 4th century BCE, concurrent with the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period

Asoka (304–232 BCE): KING OF NORTHERN INDIA, FIRST TO CONVERT TO BUDDHISM AND SPREAD THE RELIGION FOR ASIA. A PACIFIST.

Shih Huang-ti (259 BC – 210 BC): First Emperor of China (unification).

Kalidasa (4th Century CE): INDIAN WRITER. OLD FOLK STORIES, FAIRY TALES. He is regarded as the greatest figure in classical Sanskrit literature.

Asian Costumes


China                                                                    India                                                                    Japan

Ancient Asian Civilizations                                                                                Ancient Asian Religions

   


ANCIENT INDIA:  (2600-1300 BCE)

History of South Asia
Stone Age before 3300 BCE
Mature Harappan 2600–1700 BCE
Late Harappan 1700–1300 BCE
Iron Age 1200–300 BCE
Maurya Empire 321–184 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 230 BCE–1279 CE
Satavahana 230 BCE–220 CE
Gupta Empire 280–550 CE
Pala Empire 750–1140 CE
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1596
Mughal Empire 1526–1803
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
British India 1858–1947
Modern States since 1947

LIFE DEPENDS ON WATER FROM INDUS RIVER

Cities of Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro (larger). Twice a year river overflows (Snowmelt from mountains & seasonal winds: Monsoons): Two crops a year. Writing system not deciphered. Strong central authority. High & thick walls. Very well structured streets. Drainpipes to carry away waste. Place to store grain. More use of metal than in Mesopotamia & Egypt. Use of irrigation. Potter’s wheel & fired bricks. Widespread trading contacts. Natural disasters or ecological changes caused systems failure.

The Vedic Age  (1500-500 BCE)

Aryans: Nomadic light-skinned warriors, speaking Indo-European languages crossed the Khyber Pass and settled in northwest India, pushing south the Dasas, dark-skinned speakers of Dravidian languages. The Aryans depended mostly on herds of cattle. Lavish feasts & heavy drinking, chariot racing & gambling. Iron tools & plows pulled by oxen. Over time, a system of Varna  (classes): Brahmin (priests & scholars), Kshatriya (warriors & officials), Vaishya (landowners, merchants & artisans),  Shudras (peasants & laborers) (Shudra reserved for Dasas), and Untouchables. Jati or Castes: Subgroups within classes, based on occupation and duties. People in each jati, lived, married, ate, etc only w/ people of the same jati. Elaborate rules to regulate contacts between different jati. Varna & Jati connected to the idea of Reincarnation. Every living creature has an immortal essence, which after death is reborn in the body of an insect, animal or human, based on the Karma (deeds) = You are what you deserve to be!

Dominant Vedic Deities: Indra (Chief deity; god of war & rain), Varuna (universal order, morality and justice; god of forgiveness), and Agni (god of fire and sacrifice). Sanskit: language of the Arya upper class.

The Vedic religion evolved into Hinduism, which incorporated elements from Dravidian cultures. Devotion to a particular deity. Deities: Vishnu (the preserver), Shiva (creation and destruction), and Devi / Kali (the Goddess: fertility, procreation, and violence) related to cycle of life. Worship: Temples, Puja (caring for statue of deity), Pilgrimage to famous shrines, bathing in sacred waters of Ganges River.


Shiva                                                                      Ganesha                                                          Vishnu

Sanskrit Literature

The Vedas (1500-500 BCE):

They form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism.

The Four Vedas: Rig, Yajur, Sāma and Atharva. According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are "not of human agency", being supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are "what is heard". Vedic mantras are recited at Hindu prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions. Most Indologists agree that an oral tradition existed long before a literary tradition tentatively may have been set in. Apart from the religious rituals and philosophic doctrines, they also contain many hidden secret instructions in coded format for preparing various Vedic medicines.

 The Upanishads (600 BCE):

They are a collection of Indian philosophical treatises contributing to the theology of ancient Hinduism, elaborating on the earlier Vedas, on the nature of reality and the soul and the relations between these two (Vedanta). They often give the impression of an ongoing exploration of themes not yet fully resolved. They are the work of several hands. They do not belong to any particular period of Sanskrit literature: the oldest around 600 BCE, while the latest were composed in the medieval and early modern period.

The Sutra Literature (500-100 BCE):

Sūtra, literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to a large collection of aphorisms (truths, recommendations, rules), in the form of a manual. The texts were intended to be memorized by students in some of the formal methods of scriptural and scientific study.

Vedanga:  Shiksha (phonetics and phonology), Chandas (meter), Vyakarana (grammar), Nirukta (etymology), Jyotisha (astrology and astronomy), dealing particularly with the auspicious days for performing sacrifices, and Kalpa (ritual): Srauta Sutras (performance of sacrifices), Smarta Sutras, Grhya Sutras (covering domestic life), and Dharma Sutras.
Yoga Sutras: An enormously influential work on yoga philosophy and practice.
Nyāya Sūtras: An epistemological and metaphysical system. The ultimate purpose of the Nyaya Sutras is the attainment of salvation by knowledge.
Kama Sutra: The standard work on love in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian intellectual Vatsayana. A portion of the work deals with human sexual behavior.

The Epics (500-100 BCE)

The Ramayana and Mahabharata, also termed Itihāsa (History), are epic poems that form a canon of Hindu scripture.

With more than 74,000 verses, long prose passages, and about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is one of the longest epic poems in the world. Hindus ascribe the authorship of the Mahābhārata to Vyasa (revered mythological figure in the majority of Hindu traditions). The innermost narrative of the Mahabharata tells the story of two sets of paternal first cousins who became bitter rivals, and opposed each other in war for possession of the ancestral Bharata kingdom with its capital in the "City of the Elephant," Hastinapura. What is dramatically interesting within this simple opposition is the large number of individual agendas the many characters pursue, and the numerous personal conflicts, ethical puzzles, subplots, and plot twists that give the story a strikingly powerful development. The most dramatic figure of the entire Mahabharata is Krishna, who was the supreme God Vishnu himself, descended to earth in human form to rescue Law, Good Deeds, Right, and Virtue. The Bhagavad Gita (the text is a conversation between Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, just prior to the start of the Kurukshetra war) is part of the Mahabharata.

The Rāmāyaa is attributed to Valmiki (first poet in Hinduism). The Rāmāyaa consists of 24,000 verses in seven books, and 500 cantos and tells the story of Rāma, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, and Rama’s adventures to rescue her. Thematically, the epic explores themes of human existence and the concept of dharma.

Also see Kalidasa


                                                    Sanskrit


BUDDHISM

-PRINCE GAUTAMA SAT UNDER A GIANT TREE FOR 49 DAYS TO MEDITATE AND TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF LIFE.  AFTER THAT HE WAS KNOWN AS BUDDHA (THE ENLIGHTENED ONE).

-HE SPENT THE REST OF HIS LIFE TRAVELING FROM ONE VILLAGE TO ANOTHER, TEACHING, AND PREACHING THE "FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS" AND THE MIDDLE POINT.

After 700 BCE, challenge against power of Brahmin power: Jainism & Buddhism. Alternative paths to salvation, individual pursuit of insight into the nature of the self through physical and mental discipline (yoga), special dietary practices, and meditation.

Buddhism: Middle Path, Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, and the Wheel of the Law. Goal: Enlightenment. Ultimate reward: Nirvana. Eventually, Hinduism prevailed over Buddhism in India, which was driven to Central, East, and Southeast Asia. Maybe too much austerity, denial of importance of gods, and high expectations for individuals were too hard for ordinary people.

1. Life means suffering.

2. The origin of suffering is attachment.

3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.

4. There is a path to the cessation of suffering: The Eightfold Path (Also see the Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path)

1. Right View

Wisdom

2. Right Intention

3. Right Speech

Ethical Conduct

4. Right Action

5. Right Livelihood

6. Right Effort

Mental Development

7. Right Mindfulness

8. Right Concentration

 

    

 

The Middle Path & Meditation

Total Emptiness = Enlightenment / Nirvana: the state of being free from both suffering and the cycle of rebirth.)

Purpose of Life:

In Buddhism, the purpose of life is to end suffering. The Buddha taught that humans suffer because we continually strive after things that do not give lasting happiness.

 

Buddha said of death:

Life is a journey.
Death is a return to earth.
The universe is like an inn.
The passing years are like dust.
Regard this phantom world
As a star at dawn, a bubble in a stream,
A flash of lightning in a summer cloud,
A flickering lamp - a phantom - and a dream

Buddhist Branches:

1-Theravada: Literally, "the Teaching of the Elders", or "the Ancient Teaching". It is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism. Theravada promotes that insight must come from the aspirant's experience, critical investigation, and reasoning instead of by blind faith. The ideal of  individual release from suffering and attainment of Nirvana.

2-Mahayana is the larger of the two major traditions of Buddhism existing today. Many teachings, with various contrasting ideas. The fundamental principle of Mahayana is based around the possibility of universal liberation from suffering for all beings. Most Mahayana schools believe in a pantheon of quasi-divine Bodhisattvas that devote themselves to personal excellence, ultimate knowledge, and the salvation of humanity. In Mahayana, the Buddha is seen as the ultimate, highest being, present in all times, in all beings, and in all places, and the Bodhisattvas come to represent the universal ideal of altruistic excellence. Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that  they claim are original teachings of the Buddha.

3-Zen Buddhism is a school of Mahayana which often de-emphasizes the pantheon of Bodhisattvas and instead focuses on the meditative aspects of the religion. Zen also emphasizes dharma practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation. As such, it de-emphasizes both theoretical knowledge and the study of religious texts in favor of direct, experiential realization. The emergence of Zen as a distinct school of Buddhism was first documented in China in the 7th century CE.

4-Tibetan Buddhism: This is the religion of about 3 million Tibetans and 7 million Mongols and others. The Dalai Lama is the equivalent of the Pope for them. A secondary leader is the Teshu Lama (or Panchen Lama). These two are regarded as 'Living Buddhas', being reincarnations of Buddha passing from one existence to another. When one dies, his successor is sought from among the baby boys born at the time the leader passed away because it is believed that the soul of the Buddha has only passed into another existence. Among the characteristic features of Tibetan Buddhism are its emphasis on the importance of the master - disciple relationship for both religious scholarship and meditation; its recognition of a huge pantheon of Buddhas or Bodhisattvas, saints, demons, and deities; its sectarianism, which resulted from the great secular powers of the rival monastic organizations; and, finally, the marked piety of both monastic and lay Tibetan Buddhists, which receives expression in their spinning of prayer wheels, their pilgrimages to and circumambulation of holy sites, prostrations and offerings, recitation of texts, and chanting of Mantras (a religious or mystical poem, typically from the Sanskrit language).

-BUDDHISM SPREAD TO CHINA, KOREA, AND JAPAN.

Religion
Millions of Adherents
Hinduism

793

Buddhism

325

Origination

India

India

When

1500 B.C.

500 B.C.

Prophets

No prophets

Adherent

Hindu

Buddhist

Founder

Many

Siddhartha Gautama

God

Many: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Kali

none

Devil

Iblis, Shaitan

Mara

This Life's Purpose

One-of-many

This is it!

Afterlife

Reincarnation

Nirvana

Redemption

Karma
Eliminate passions

Enlightenment
Eliminate passions

Place of Worship

Temple

Temple

Holy Book

Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana and Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita

Tipitaka

Seeks Converts?

No

No

Main Sects
(worldwide)
70% Vaishnaites
25% Shiavites
  2% neo-Hindu
56% Mahayana
38% Hinayana
  6% Tantrayana

Mauryan Empire (320-184 BCE)

India: Political fragmentation. First centralized empire: Mauryan, under king Chandragupta. Ganges plains. After Alexander. Kautilya, Brahmin guide of the king, wrote about the Mandala (theory of foreign policy): ‘My enemy’s enemy is my friend”. Tax = 25% of harvest. Large imperial army (infantry, cavalry, chariot, and elephant divisions). Royal control of mines, shipbuilding, and manufacture of weapons. Capital city: Pataliputra / Patna, governed by six committees (trade, manufacture, sales, taxes, census, foreigners). Ashoka (Chandragupta’s grandson), converted to Buddhism. After Ashoka, internal disputes and external attacks. Greco-Bactria kingdom (180-50 BCE), Scythinans (50 BCE-50 CE), Kushans (50-240 CE). Roads and towns emerged, commerce increased, merchants & artisans gained influence. Two old epics poems achieved final form: Ramayana (adventures of prince Rama –incarnation of Vishnu) & Mahabharata (eight times the length of the Iliad & Odyssey combined- tells the struggle between two sets of cousins over the throne, leading to a cataclysmic battle). In the Bhagavad-Gita, part of the Mahabharata, Krishna (the god) has a conversation w/ Arjuna, to persuade him to fight, and finally reveled himself. The "four main goals of life": Dharma: Virtuous living, Artha: Material prosperity, Kama: Aesthetic and erotic pleasure (see Kama Sutra), and Moksha: Liberation. This is a period of advances in science and technology. Panini transformed Sanskrit into a literary language. In the south, Tamil kingdoms.

      


                                Potala Palace, Tibet                                                                                                  Buddhist Stupa

THE GUPTA EMPIRE" ( 320-550 CE):  THE GOLDEN AGE OF INDIA.

Less extensive than the Mauryan; continuation of it (same area, same capital city). Subjects had to donate a # days to work for the state. Governors had free hand ruling over their areas. A theater-state: Persuade other people to follow them showing splendor, beauty and order at their capital (same of Mauryan). The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. Government supported astronomers, mathematicians, etc. Concept of “zero” and “Arabic” numerals were developed during this period in India. Practice of inoculation shots to prevent diseases. Chess invented. The theory that the Earth moves round the Sun and the study of solar and lunar eclipses originated in this period. Kalidasa, the great playwright, wrote Shakuntala. The ancient Gupta text Kama Sutrawidely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature, was written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. Decline in the status of women (lost right to own property, barred from studying sacred texts, etc. Practice of Sati: Widow has to die w/ husband. Caste system became more restrictive. Official religion: Hinduism. Trade w/ Southeast and East Asia increased. Collapse fighting the Huns.

 


Budhist Monument of Borobudur, Java, Indonesia

ANCIENT CHINA

-LIFE DEPENDS ON WATER FROM THE YELLOW (HUANG HO) AND YANGTZE ( THE DEEPEST IN THE WORLD) RIVERS.

-FIRST CITIES (ANYANG, CHANG'AN, AND LOUYANG).

SHANG DYNASTY (1750-1027 BCE): It is the first historic dynasty of China.

First to produce silk. First written records (pictograms): only the elite & scribes. The wrote on stripes of bamboo. System of characters up and down. City: Anyang. Massive walls. Use of bronze. Intensive mining of copper & tin. Great network of trade (maybe even w/ Mesopotamia). Worship of spirits of male ancestors. Divination: Looking at natural events & bones to guess the will of the gods (shamans). Use of chariots. Use of Marble and Jade to carve objects.

 

ZHOU DYNASTY (1027 BCE - 221 BCE):

Wu, from the Ji family, ruler of the Zhou. Longest lasting and most revered dynasty. Capital at Hào. Separation of religion and government. Power of the shamans faded away. Political decentralization. Sophisticated bureaucracy. All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave them to their serfs, a situation similar to European feudalism. Age of Philosophers (Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, Mohism). Yin and Yang. Chief deity: Heaven, Emperor: Son of Heaven and government: Mandate of Heaven.

QIN DYNASTY (221-206 BCE):

The word China is derived from Qin / Ch'in, the first dynasty to unify the country by conquering the warring feudal states and marking the beginning of Imperial China.. First Emperor: Ch'in Shih Huang-ti. City: Luoyang. Totalitarian and very centralized government. Standardization: measures, weights, and coins; uniform law code, common system of writing. Burning of books: break w/ the past. Tried to abolish slavery (domestic and w/ legal protections). Iron replaced bronze. First canals (military and trade). Beginning of Great Wall. Built thousands of miles of roads. Terracotta Army. Cracked down on Confucianism. Legalism, the official philosophy.
Inventions:

  *   Legalism
  *   Standardized writing and language
  *   Standardized money
  *   Standardized system of measurement
  *   Irrigation projects
  *   Building of the Great Wall
  *   Terra cotta army
  *   Expanded Network of Roads and Canals
  *   Multiplication Table
 


Terracotta Army

 

HAN DYNASTY (206 BCE - 220 CE):

One of the greatest periods in the history of China. Liu Bang started the new dynasty. Stop the excesses and go back to venerable past. Taxes: % of the harvest. Cities: Chang’an and Luoyang. More urban society. Intensive agriculture and more canals. Frequent censuses. Men had to donate a month a year for public work projects and to serve for two years in the army. Territorial expansion (from Manchuria & Korea to Vietnam). Family was very important. China became a Confucian state. Divinity within nature, not above it. Feng shui (earth divination): best location and orientation of buildings. Emperor & nobility live w/ pomp and luxury, isolated from the people, in royal palace. Lots of conspiracy. Civil servants (bureaucracy) became very important (System of examinations ). Imperial University outside Chang’an and provincial centers of learning.
Inventions:
  *  
Silk Road
  *   Papermaking
  *   Iron technology (cast iron) plowshares; Moldboard plow (kuan)
  *   Glazed pottery
  *   Wheelbarrow
  *   Seismograph (Chang Heng)
  *   Compass
  *   Ship's rudder
  *   Stirrups
  *   Drawloom weaving
  *   Embroidery for decorating garments
  *   Hot Air Balloon
  *   Chinese Examination System
 

The Silk Road:

Connecting China and the Middle East. Exchange of goods, people and ideas; a social system. Merchants / nomadic traders: great historical impact. They did not share their knowledge with others to avoid competition. China: Silk, Ceramics, Tea, Sugar, Gold. Central Asia: Camels, Horses, Almonds, Mint, Wool, Rugs. Middle East: Metalwork, Glassware, Salt, Wine. Chinese general Zhan Jian led 18 expeditions to western lands opening the Silk Road. He found the Ferghana Valley. The Great Wall provided a safety for merchants. Camel Caravans. Rise of Central Asia as the center of the Silk Road. Parthian Empire between China & Middle East. Sassanid Empire replaced the Parthian around year 224 C.E. and made Zoroastrianism the state religion, similar to the Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire. Religion became an instrument of politics. Both churches were very intolerant toward other faiths, accusing Jews, Buddhist missionaries, etc of heresy. Nestorian Christians and Manicheans. Armenia: Christian center in Asia supported by Constantinople. King Ashoka, Maurya ruler of India, promoted Buddhism. Faxian, Chinese pilgrim, helped to spread Buddhism too (Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, Sri Lanka, Java, and China). Buddhism: Therevada & Mahayana. Religious missionaries moving in both directions along the Silk Road (East ßà West). Invention of the stirrup by the Kushan people (north Afghanistan).


 

 
  
Lao Tze, Father of Taoism / Daoism            The Yin and Yang

Confucianism (Confucius)

1-Human morality and good deeds. Complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought.
2-Social harmony: every individual should know his / her place in the social order and play his / her part well.
3- Filial piety is considered among the greatest of virtues and must be shown towards both the living and the dead (veneration of ancestors). This principle included the relationship of respect and obedience that must exist between Subject to Sovereign, Child to Parent, Wife to Husband, and Young to Elder.
4- Loyalty was considered one of the greatest human virtues (to leader, family, spouse, and friends).
5- Golden Rule: "What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others;".

Daoism / Taoism (Lao Tze)

1-The Three Jewels of the Tao / Dao: compassion, moderation, and humility.
2- Taoism focuses on simplicity, longevity, non-action, spontaneity, health, refinement, detachment, and the strength of softness or flexibility.
3-Importance of the link between people and nature: reverence for nature. The Tao / Dao: the flow of the universe, the force behind the natural order. Follow your natural instincts.
4-Yin and Yang: The natural unity of opposites; two complementary qualities. Yin: soft, slow, substantial, water, cold, conserving, tranquil, gentle, female, and corresponds to the night. Yang: hot, fire, restless, hard, dry, excitement, non-substantial, rapidity, male, and corresponds to the day. The Yin and yang aspects are in dynamic equilibrium. As one aspect declines, the other increases to an equal degree.

Mohism (Mozi)

1-The concept of "impartial care" and "universal love".
2-Everyone is equal before heaven.
3-Empiricism: our cognition should be based on our perceptions – our sensory experiences.
4-All people –equally- deserve to receive material benefit and to be protected from physical harm (equal care for all individuals).

Legalism (Shang Yang, Li Si, and Han Fei)

1-It is one of the earliest known totalitarian ideologies / political philosophies. The Qin empire needed a vigorously regulated machine, the sole purpose of which was the elimination of all rivals.
2-People are evil and corrupt and need restrain and punishment.
3-Severe laws and harsh punishments are required (state) to keep them in order.
4-The law must be clear and public. All people are equal before the law. Laws should reward those who obey them and punish those who break them.

CHINESE CONTRIBUTIONS

 

   
                        Acupuncture                                                                                   The First Magnetic Compass

        
Abacus                                                                                    Gun Powder: Fireworks

 

 

 


4-GREECE

Topic 4: Ancient Greece                                                                                                                                                                               

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

IB3: Trace the origin and development of classical Greek Civilization, placing emphasis on the role of geography in its development.

IB8: Explain the significance of geography in the development of civilizations and nation states.

IIB5:  Discuss and analyze factors which discouraged unification among the Greek city-states.

IIIA10:  Explain the responsibilities of citizens in a democracy.

Essential Content:

·          The Geography of Greece:  The Black Sea &  The Aegean Sea         

·          Greek Historical Periods: Minoan Period, Mycenaean Period, Hellenic Period, Hellenistic Period

·          The Greek City-States:  The Polis:  The Center of Greek Life,  Greek Colonies,  Tyranny in City-States,  Sparta and Athens

·          The Growth of the Athenian Empire:  The Age of Pericles, Great Peloponnesian War, Daily Life, Greek Religion

·          The Culture of Greece: Drama, Philosophy, Writing,  Art

Vocabulary/Identification:   polis, acropolis, agora, democracy, oligarchy, Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, epic poem, Byzantium, ephors, Athens, Sparta, ostracism, rituals, Delphi, Gulf of Corinth, Tragedies, Socratic Method, Herodutus, Parthenon, Alexander the Great, Troy, Pelopponeisian War, Homer, Illiad, Odyysey, Macedonia, Phillip II, Hellenistic Era

 

==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

Free Videos on History

-Youtube

Engineering an Empire: Greece in the Age of Alexander (Discovery Channel))... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WWuuPmGltM
Turning Points in History: Greek Democracy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLdk23DlNiY&feature=related
Decisive Battles: Marathon (History Channel, 3 parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot4PusEalnA&feature=related
Decisive Battles: The Battle Of Thermopylae (History Channel)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhgMn9rvn_Y
Decisive Battles: Gaugamela (History Channel, 3 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNHQsbM0Np4
Seven Wonders of the World (2 parts)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3T-w-JrinFQ

-Study.com (About 5 minutes each video)

The Minoans
History of the Alphabet: From Cuneiform to Greek Writing
The Iliad: Greek Epic
The Odyssey: Greek Epic
Bronze Age Greece: Schliemann's Quest for Troy
From Mycenae's Collapse to Greek Colonization
Greek Myth and Religion
Greek City-States and Governments
Women of Greece
Ancient Greek Art, Pottery and Sculpture
Ancient Greek Architecture: Dorian, Ionic & Corinthian
The Birth of Philosophy: The Pre-Socratics
Phalanx Warfare in Ancient Greece

Greek Theatre: Tragedy and Comedy
History of Sparta
Birth of History: Herodotus' Persian War
Slavery in Ancient Greece
Athenian Democracy: Solon and Cleisthenes
Pericles, the Delian League, and the Athenian Golden Age
Peloponnesian War and Thucydides
Socrates: Life, Death and Philosophy
Platonic Idealism: Plato and His Influence
Aristotelian Logic: Aristotle's Central Concepts and Influence
Alexander the Great and the Birth of Hellenism
The Library of Alexandria & The Benefits of Hellenization
Euclid, Archimedes & Ptolemy: Alexandrian Hellenistic Philosophers
The Argonautica Plot Synopsis: The Myth of Jason and the Argonauts

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

The Persians & The Greeks: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-mkVSasZIM
Alexander the Great: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LsrkWDCvxg

-Annenberg (28 minutes each)

The Rise of Greek Civilization ... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=823
Greek Thought... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=824
Alexander the Great... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=825
The Hellenistic Age... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=826

Art History Free Videos:

-Otis College Art History:

Minoan Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQ31L6aWtZA
Introduction to Greek Culture
: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXbUctQQTLM
Greek Sculpture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9WLkpnV_eM
Classical Art:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ijk6IHou0zY

-Khan Academy:

Ancient Greece: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/ancient-greece/v/krater--ca--750--700-b-c-e


VOCABULARY

1-CLASSICAL: PERFECT MODEL.

2-LEGEND: ANCIENT STORY WHERE FANTASY & REALITY BLEND.

3-PHILOSOPHER: THINKER.

4-ACHEANS: FIRST GREEKS.

5-ACROPOLIS: HILL WHERE GREEK BUILT THEIR CITIES.

6-DEMOCRACY: RULE BY THE PEOPLE.

7-DIRECT DEMOCRACY: PEOPLE VOTE DIRECTLY EACH LAW.

8-REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: SENATORS & REPRESENTATIVES.

9-POLIS: CITY - STATE.

10-BALLOT: VOTING PROCESS (SECRET/ WHITE & BLACK STONES).

11-OSTRACISM: A procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances clearly expressed popular anger at the victim, ostracism was often used preemptively. It was used as a way of defusing major confrontations between rival politicians (by removing one of them from the scene), neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state, or exiling a potential tyrant. Crucially, ostracism had no relation to the processes of justice. There was no charge or defense, and the exile was not in fact a penalty; it was simply a command from the Athenian people that one of their number be gone for ten years.

12-HELOTS: The helots were an un-free population group that formed the main population of Laconia and the whole of Messenia (areas of Sparta). They were ritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered: every autumn, during the crypteia, they could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of repercussion.

13-SHIELD / SPARTAN SLOGAN:  WITH THE SHIELD: VICTORY OR ON THE SHIELD: DEAD.

14-HELLENISTIC PERIOD: The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic era describes the time which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition, between the brilliance of the Greek Classical Era and the emergence of the Roman Empire. Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may either be seen to end with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC; or the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexander's empire, the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt in 31/30 BC, after the Battle of Actium. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of colonists which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Hellenistic civilization thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and Southwest Asia, and a departure from earlier Greek attitudes towards "barbarian" cultures. The emergence of a genuinely hybrid Greco-Asian cultures is not completely proven.

15-BARD:  MINSTREL

16-TROJAN WAR: In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer. The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans (except for some of the women and children whom they kept or sold as slaves) and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern day Italy. The ancient Greeks thought the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles.
16.1-TROJAN HORSE: TRICK, FIFTH COLUMN IN ENEMY LINES. Used by the Greeks to enter and destroy Troy.

17-GREEK MYTHOLOGY: FABLES, STORIES ABOUT GODS AND HEROES.

18-PARTHENON, ERECHTHEION, ORACLES .

19-PHALANX FORMATION: INFANTRY BLOCK (1,000 SOLDIERS)

20-SARISSA: The sarissa was a 4 to 7 meter (13–21 feet) long spear used in Greek warfare. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in the traditional Greek phalanx formation as a replacement for the earlier dory, which was considerably shorter. The phalanxes of Philip II of Macedon were known as Macedonian phalanxes. The word remained in use throughout the Byzantine years to sometimes describe the long spears of the Byzantine infantry

21-GREEK FIRE: Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used in warships.

22-AGORA: A PLACE FOR PUBLIC ASSEMBLY; PUBLIC SQUARE: PHILOSOPHERS, POLITICAL DEBATES. MARKETPLACE.

23-DISCONCERT: To throw into confusion or disorder; to disturb or upset

24-WILY: Skilled at gaining an advantage; crafty; cunning.

25-PENETRATE: To pass through, to enter; to pierce.

26-INGENIOUS: Endowed with good natural capacity, gifted with genius. Clever or skillful, inventive.

27-PRIME: Prepared for use or action; ready.

28-PLAUSIBLE: Seeming reasonable or probable; seeming to be true or possible.

29-PLACATE: To soothe or mollify especially by concessions; appease or pacify; to make peaceful.

30-DESECRATE: To violate the sanctity of something sacred; to profane; the act of depriving something of its sacred character.

31-MASTERPIECE: A creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill or workmanship. An exceptionally good piece of creative work or the best piece of work of a particular artist or craftsman. An extraordinary work of art or literature.

32-OLIGARCHY: A form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, corporate, or military control.

33-SPARTA: Sparta or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnesus. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local population. From  650 BC it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War.

34-ATHENS: Classical Athens was a powerful city-state. A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent.

35-EPIC POEM: An epic is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
35.1-ILIAD: The
Iliad
(sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an epic poem traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war, the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege, the earlier events, such as the gathering of warriors for the siege, the cause of the war and similar, tending to appear near the beginning, and the events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' looming death and the sack of Troy, prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly approaching the end of the poem, making the poem tell a more or less complete tale of the Trojan War.
35.2-ODYSSEY: The
Odyssey
is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work traditionally ascribed to Homer. It was probably composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (or Ulysses) and his long journey home following the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, competing for Penelope's hand in marriage.

Please, take a look at this website, covering these two classics: http://library.thinkquest.org/19300/data/homer.htm

36-SOCRATIC METHOD: The Socratic method, named after the classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas. It is a dialectical method, often involving an oppositional discussion in which the defense of one point of view is pitted against the defense of another; one participant may lead another to contradict him in some way, strengthening the inquirer's own point.

37-DELPHI: In Greek mythology, Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle, the most important oracle in the classical Greek world, and a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. The Pythia (commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi, was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. The Pythia was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by Apollo. The Delphic oracle was established in the 8th century BC. The last recorded response was given in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle in the Greek world. The oracle is one of the best-documented religious institutions of the classical Greek world.

38-EPHORS: An ephor was the leader of ancient Sparta and shared power with the Spartan king. There were five ephors elected annually, who "swore on behalf of the city", while the kings swore for themselves. The Ephors did not have to kneel down before the Kings of Sparta and were highly considered by the citizens, because of the importance of their powers and because of the holy role they earned throughout their functions. Since decisions were made by majority vote, this could mean that Sparta's policy could change quickly, when one vote of an ephor switched.

39-MACEDONIA: An ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs, to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world, occurred under the reign of Philip II. For a brief period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great, it became the most powerful state in the world, controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire, stretching as far as the Indus River; at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization.

 

PEOPLE, LEADERS, THINKERS

1-MINOS: LEGENDARY KING OF CRETE IN 2600 BC. AEGEAN, THESEUS, ARIADNE, MINOTAUR, AND THE LABYRINTH.

2-AGAMEMNON (king of Mycenae ) & MENELAUS (king of Sparta and Helen's husband): (1250 BC.) . TROJAN WAR

3-HOMER: BLIND BARD : THE ILIAD & THE ODYSSEY

4-THEMISTOCLES : ATHENIAN LEADER. MARATHON, THE NAVY, SALAMIS.

5-PERICLES: ATHENIAN LEADER DURING THE "GOLDEN AGE" (461-429 BC.). HE DIED DURING THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR VICTIM OF THE PLAGUE THAT HIT ATHENS.

6-HERODOTUS: GREEK HISTORIAN.

7-DARIUS: PERSIAN EMPEROR

8-XERSES: DARIUS I SON.

9-PHIDIAS: GREEK SCULPTOR.

10-PHILIP II: KING OF MACEDON

11-ALEXANDER THE GREAT: SON OF PHILIP II

12-SOPHOCLES, EURIPIDES, AND AESCHYLUS: MASTERS OF GREEK TRAGEDY (THEATER).

13-ARISTOPHANES: GREEK COMEDY

14-SOCRATES, PLATO, AND ARISTOTLE: PHILOSOPHERS.

15-HIPPOCRATES: FATHER OF MEDICINE.

16-EUCLID, THALES, ARCHIMEDES, AND PYTHAGORAS: MATHEMATICIANS AND PHYSICISTS.

17-DRACO: HE CREATED THE LEGAL CODE / FIRST WRITTEN CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS.
 

                                                        Homer, the blind bard

PERIODS OF THE HISTORY OF GREECE

1-MINOAN PERIOD: 2700 - 1450 BCE.
Bronze Age civilization. The term "Minoan" was coined by British archeologist Sir Arthur Evans after the mythic king Minos, who was associated with the labyrinth, the Minotaur, Thesseus, and Ariadne (Greek Mythology). Maybe Greek cities paying tribute to Crete; at least cultural influence. Monumental palaces: Knossos. Cities had not walls. Widespread trade connections. Centralized government. Home to many ships. Writing system: Linear A (pictorial signs).

2-MYCENAEAN PERIOD: 1600 - 1150 BCE.
Historical setting of the epics of Homer (600s BCE). German businessman Heinrich Schliemann discovered Troy (1870) and shaft graves with treasures at Mycenae (1876). Several citadels on hilltops, thick fortified walls. Baked clay tablets written in Linear B (pictorial signs). No names of individual kings. Cultural uniformity (result of intense trade), but political independent centers of power. War-like people. Good sailors and traders. Production and exports of wine & olive oil. Conflicts with Hittites: Trojan War (1200s BCE). Many explanations attribute the fall of the Mycenaean civilization to environmental catastrophe combined with Dorian invasions from the south.

3-GREECE’S “DARK AGE”: 1150 - 800 BCE.
The Greek Dark Age: fewer and smaller settlements, suggesting famine and depopulation. There were no more monumental stone buildings, writing ceased, vital trade links were lost, and towns and villages were abandoned. The population of Greece fell and the world of organized state armies, kings, officials, and redistributive systems disappeared.

4-ARCHAIC PERIOD: 800 - 480 BCE.
Phoenician ships began to visit the Aegean.
Mycenaean Linear B script was replaced with a new alphabet system, adopted from the Phoenicians. Explosion of population. Greek polis (city-states), fiercely independent. Hilltop acropolis for emergencies. The agora. Hoplite warfare. Hellenes vs. Barbarians. Hellenes: Ionians, Dorians, and Aeolians. Coins made trade easier. Political instability. Era of Tyrants: 650-500. Draconian Constitution or Code of Laws (621). Greek Mythology. State-sponsored festivals. The oracle (Apollo’s at Delphi). Growing emphasis on the individual. Pre-Socratic Philosophers (Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Democritus, etc.) challenged traditional religion. The rise of democracy, philosophy, theatre, and poetry. Herodotus: History. Sparta: Territorial expansion and capture of POWs (Helots). Military camp in a permanent state of preparedness. Professional army; best soldiers. Cautious and isolationist foreign policy. Athens: No professional army. Solon (594): the reforms and Peisistratos (546): the tyrant. Cyrus’s conquest of Lydia (546). Darius (490) & Xerxes (480). Persian Wars (490 - 480): Battles of Marathon (490, the Thermopylae (480), and Salamis (480).

5-CLASSIC PERIOD: 480 - 323 BCE.
After victory in Persian Wars, Pericles (461-429) turned the Delian League into an “Athenian Empire”. Contributions of member city-states to build Athenian navy and monumental buildings in Athens. Athens required submission from other cities. Use of force against any city refusing. Trireme (fast vessel w/ 170 rowers). The Golden Age. He fostered democracy (only male citizens: 15% of population). Use of Ostracism. Athens became the most important commercial center in the eastern Mediterranean. Cultural achievements (Festivals, Theater, Art, Philosophy, etc.) based on profits from the “empire”. Sophists (traveling teachers). Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Slaves = 30% of population. Women vs. Goddesses. Men’s bisexuality. Peloponnesian Wars (431-404): Sparta defeated Athens. Philip of Macedonia created the Confederacy of Corinth to control Greek city-states. Alexander became king (336) and led offensive against Persian Empire. Defeat of Darius III at Gaugamela (331)

6-HELLENISTIC PERIOD: 338 - 30 BCE. (Macedonian Empire).
The conquered lands included Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media, Persia, and parts of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia. After years of constant campaigning, Alexander died in 323 BC. These huge territories became subject to a strong Greek influence (Hellenization) for the next three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. Blend of Greek and eastern cultures: a hybrid Hellenistic culture. The empire broke up into three major kingdoms: The Selucid (Persia), Ptolomaic (Egypt), and Antigonid (Macedonia). Cosmopolitan age of long-distance trade; rise of libraries and universities.  The empires promoted immigration of Greeks from homeland to the territories in exchange for lands and privileged positions. Alexandria, in Egypt, became a great city with more than half million people (Mausoleum of Alexander, the Library, the Museum –House of the Muses-, promoted the work of poets, philosophers, and scientists. The Lighthouse, public baths, gymnasiums, etc.)

7- GRECO-BACTRIAN KINGDOM: 250 to 125 BCE
It was founded around 250 BCE when the Seleucid military governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana decided to get the independence of his territory from the Seleucid Empire that at the time was involved in a war against Ptolemaic Egypt. It became the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world. The Parthian Empire (238 BC - 226 AD), the third Iranian kingdom during ancient times, defeated the Greek Seleucid Empire & Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, ending the Hellenization of Iran. The Empire also became a rival state of the powerful Roman Empire.

8-GREECE: A ROMAN PROVINCE.

 

GREECE:  A PENINSULA WITH A ROCKY LAND AND SURROUNDED BY WATER: SAILORS. GREEKS LIVE ON THE SHORES OF THE SEA "LIKE FROGS AROUND A POND" -PLATO.
 

 

The Minotaur


 

The Trojan Horse


                                                          The Acropolis, Athens

 

Greek Architecture          Click to See PowerPoints on Greek Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/




                                                               The Erechtheum. The Carythids.


The Parthenon, Athens
 

 

PERSIAN WARS (490 - 480)

-WARS TO DEFEND GREEK CITIES FROM PERSIAN ATTACKS.

-THIS RELATED AND UNITED THE CITIES.

-DARIUS SENT 600 WARSHIPS AND THOUSANDS OF SOLDIERS, BUT ATHENIANS SURPRISED THEM WHILE LANDING AND DEFEATED THEM.

-PHIDIPPIDES RAN 20 MILES FROM MARATHON TO ATHENS TO TELL ABOUT THE VICTORY. WHEN HE ARRIVED, HE YELLED: "NIKE", AND FALL DEAD. (LEGEND). ANOTHER VERSION IS THAT HE RUN TO SPARTA (MORE THAN 100 MILES) TO ASK FOR HELP.

-YEARS LATER, XERXES SENT 1,000 SHIPS AND 20,000 SOLDIERS. TWENTY CITIES JOINED TO FIGHT THE PERSIANS. ATHENIANS COMMANDED THE NAVY AND SPARTANS THE ARMY.

ATHENS WAS DESTROYED, BUT THE GREEKS WON THE WAR.



Battle of Marathon: 490 BC


Battle Thermopylae (300 Spartans): 480 BC


Battle of Salamis: 480 BC

 




The Greek Phalanx. The Sarissa.


Division of the Empire after Alexander's Death.

 

Greek Sculpture         Click to See PowerPoints on Greek Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/

C L A S S I C   P E R I O D


Hermes & Infant Dionysus by Praxiteles             Venus of  Milo                   Discobolus by Myron                                                                
                                                                                 

 

H E L L E N I S T I C   P E R I O D

          
Seated Boxer / Pugilist Resting, by Lyssipus of Sikyon                                                                 The Winged Victory / Nike of Samothrace                                                              

    
Laocoön and His Sons, by Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodoros of Rhodes                                                                                Pergamon Altar

                                                                                                                        

 

Greek Philosophy:

Philosophy is the discipline concerned with the questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic). The word itself is of Greek origin: φιλοσοφία (philosophía), a compound of φίλος (phílos: friend, or lover) and σοφία (sophía: wisdom). Ancient Greek philosophy may be divided into the pre-Socratic period, the Socratic period, and the post-Aristotelian period.

The pre-Socratic period:

 Thales of Miletus (624 BC–546 BC): The "father of science". Thales' most famous belief was his cosmological doctrine, which held that the world originated from water.

Anaximander of Miletus (610 BC–546 BC): He was the first to use the word apeírôn (infinite, limitless, endless, primordial mass) to designate the original principle. He is the first philosopher to employ, in a philosophical context, the term beginning or origin. For him, it became no longer a mere point in time, but a source that could perpetually give birth to whatever will be. Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron). He is called the "Father of Cosmology" and founder of astronomy.

 Anaximenes of Miletus  (585 BC–525 BC): He held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists. Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence.

 Pythagoras of Samos(580-500 BC): He is revered as a great mathematician (known as "the father of numbers," ) and scientist. He said that the body is the prison of the soul; to free the soul, it necessary to punish the body. He believed in transmigration, or the reincarnation of the soul again and again into the bodies of humans, animals, or vegetables until it became moral. He said that music is the medicine of the soul. He was one of the first to propose that the thought processes and the soul were located in the brain and not the heart. Everything is based on numbers: He assigned roles for the numbers as follows: one was reason, two was opinion, four was justice, five was marriage because it was the sum of the first odd and the first even numbers (one was disregarded), seven was virgin because it neither factors or produces among the numbers one through ten. Odd numbers were masculine and even were feminine. Pythagoreans believed that a man's words were usually careless and misrepresented him and that when someone was "in doubt as to what he should say, he should always remain silent".

 Heraclitus of Ephesus, known as "The Obscure" (536-470 BC): He claimed that the nature of everything is change itself; according to some interpretations he uses fire - with its connotations of both Promethean / human "fire" and the cosmic fire to explain the origin of life. Heraclitus is recognized as one of the earliest dialectical philosophers with his acknowledgment of the universality of change and development through internal contradictions.

 Parmenides of Elea, a city on the southern coast of Italy (515-440 BC): He argued that the every-day perception of reality of the physical world is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is “One Being”: unchanging, indestructible. He became an early exponent of the duality of appearance and reality. Parmenides claimed that the truth cannot be known through sensory perception. Only pure reason (Logos) will result in the understanding of the truth of the world. This is because the perception of things or appearances is deceptive.

 Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Asia Minor (500 BC–428 BC): All things have existed from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined. They were the seeds (spermata) or miniatures of corn and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture. This peculiar thing called Mind, was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but it stands pure and independent, a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but that’s only a perception: decease and growth only mean a disruption / disaggregation or aggregation of the “seeds” or small fragments.

 Empedocles of Agrigentum, Sicily (490-430 BC): The origin of all matter is made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire. Empedocles postulated something called “love”  to explain the attraction of different forms of matter, and of something called “strife” to account for their separation. He was also one of the first people to state the theory that light travels at a finite speed.

 Democritus of Abdera, in Thrace (460-370 BC): All matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible elements which he called atoms or "invisible units". The knowledge of truth is difficult, since the perception through the senses is subjective. As from the same senses derive different impressions for each individual, then through the sense-impressions we cannot judge the truth.


The Socratic period:

Socrates of Athens (470–399 BC): Socrates is customarily regarded as the father of political philosophy and ethics, and as a fountainhead of all the main themes in Western philosophy in general. The Socratic Method is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts. The practice involves asking a series of questions surrounding a central issue. Generally this involves the defense of one point of view against another and is oppositional. The method of Socrates is a search for the underlying hypotheses, assumptions, or axioms, which may subconsciously shape one's opinion, and to make them the subject of scrutiny, to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates said that wisdom is determined by the awareness of one’s own ignorance. Socrates may have believed that wrongdoing is a consequence of ignorance. Socrates believed that the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth. Socrates stressed that "virtue was the most valuable of all possessions”; the ideal life was spent in search of the Good.
Socrates openly objected to the
democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates objected to any form of government that did not conform to his ideal of a perfect republic led by philosophers. During the last years of Socrates' life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval. Democracy was overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants. In addition to this, he favored Sparta (Athens’ enemy). These political issues led to his  trial and execution. He could have avoided the trial by abandoning philosophy and going home to mind his own business. After his conviction, he could have avoided the death penalty by escaping with the help of his friends. The reason for his cooperation with the state's mandate was to prove his point.

Antisthenes of Athens (444-365 BC): Founder of the Cynic school of philosophy. They rejected the social values of their time, often flouting conventions in shocking ways to prove their point. A popular conception of the intellectual characteristics is the modern sense of "cynic," implying a sneering disposition to disbelieve in the goodness of human motives.

Plato of Athens (428–347 BC): Plato is one of the three great philosophers and also a mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the western world. Plato is widely believed to have been a student of Socrates and to have been deeply influenced by his teacher's unjust death. "Platonism" is a term coined by scholars to refer to the intellectual consequences of denying the reality of the material world. Plato's Theory of Forms indicates that the sensory world that is the reality which we as human beings experience, is only a shadow of a higher realm. In this higher realm, Plato assures us that there exist the Forms or Ideas that embody the true nature of the pale shadows. What we know as sweet is only an afterimage of the Form of Sweetness. The luminous brightness of the sun is only a corporeal display of the Form of Brightness. His “Forms” are seeing as ideas / images generated / created by God for the humans to see.  Plato stated that knowledge is justified true belief. Plato argues that belief is to be distinguished from knowledge on account of justification. Plato associates knowledge with the apprehension of unchanging Forms and their relationships to one another, which he calls "expertise". Plato argues that knowledge is always proportionate to the realm from which it is gained. In other words, if one derives their account of something experientially, because the world of sense is in flux, the views therein attained will be mere opinions. And opinions are characterized by a lack of necessity and stability. On the other hand, if one derives their account of something by way of the non-sensible forms, because these forms are unchanging, so too is the account derived from them. It is only in this sense that Plato uses the term "knowledge." Plato’s most famous political doctrines are contained in The Republic.

Aristotle of Stageira (Macedonia) (384–322 BC): The third of the great Greek philosophers, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle defines his philosophy as "the science of the universal essence of that which is actual". Plato had defined it as the "science of the idea", meaning by idea what we should call the unconditional basis of phenomena. Aristotle finds the “universal” in particular things, and called it the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular. Aristotle philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences. Real knowledge comes from studying the material world.
The Organon is the name given by
Aristotle's followers, the Peripatetics, to the standard collection of six of his works on logic. The works are Categories, Prior Analytics, De Interpretatione, Posterior Analytics, Sophistical Refutations, and Topics. The Organon was used in the school founded by Aristotle at the Lyceum. His Logic is based on the syllogism: "conclusion" and "inference"). Syllogism is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others arguments (the premises) that have to be compared to lead to the conclusion.
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of
immaterial being
", or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction". He calls metaphysics "first philosophy", and also "the theological science".
Change or movement happen for a reason or cause. The
Material Cause is that from which a thing comes into existence as from its parts, constituents, substratum or materials. The Formal Cause tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis, or archetype. The Efficient Cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. The Final Cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve. There was a First Cause that was not caused, which is perfect, infinite and immaterial.
The supreme good is achieving happiness and it does not come from pleasure or virtue, but from the satisfaction of individual needs.

The post-Aristotelian period:

 Epicurus of Samos (341–270 BC): Founder of Epicureanism, a popular school of thought in Hellenistic Philosophy that spanned about 600 years. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by the absence of pain and fear, and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and bad, that death is the end of the body and the soul and not to be feared, that the gods do not reward or punish humans, that the universe is infinite and eternal, and that events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space.

Hipparchia, the Cynic (340-?? BC): Little is known about Hipparchia, for several reasons. She was a member of the unpopular Cynic school and she was a woman, and as such, not supposed to be involved in what the ancient Greeks perceived as the male pursuit of philosophy. She chose a life void of material possessions and artificial social conventions. According to St. Augustine, Hipparchia and her husband were said to follow this so closely that they consummated their marriage by having sex on a public porch.

Zeno of Citium, Cyprus (333 BC - 264 BC): Hellenistic founder of Stoicism, the school of philosophy. Stoicism teaches that self-control, fortitude and detachment from distracting emotions, sometimes interpreted as an indifference to pleasure or pain, allows one to become a clear thinker, level-headed and unbiased. A primary aspect of Stoicism would be described as improving the individual’s spiritual well-being. Virtue, reason, and natural law are prime directives. By mastering passions and emotions, Stoics believe it is possible to overcome the discord of the outside world and find peace within oneself. Stoicism holds that passion distorts truth, and that the pursuit of truth is virtuous.
Everything is material, including God. Nature, the Universe, and God are the same thing. The Universe is ruled by the supreme reason or natural laws. Pantheism: "
God is All" and "All is God". It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent.

 Chrysippus of Soli (280–207 BC): Honored as the second founder of Stoicism, he initiated the success of Stoicism as the one of the most influential philosophical movements for centuries in the Greek and Roman world.

 Pyrrho of Elis (360-270 BC): He is credited as being the first skeptic philosopher and inspiration for the school known as Pyrrhonism founded by Aenesidemus in the 1st century BC. Pyrrhonism, is the philosophical position that one should avoid the postulation of final truths. Skepticism refers more specifically to any one of several propositions. These include propositions about:
1-the limitations of knowledge,
2-a method of obtaining knowledge through systematic doubt and continual testing,
3-the arbitrariness, relativity, or subjectivity of moral values,
4-a method of intellectual caution and suspended judgment,
5-a lack of confidence in positive motives for human conduct or positive outcomes for human enterprises, that is,
cynicism and pessimism.

 Sextus Empiricus (??-??): His philosophical work is the most complete surviving account of ancient Greek and Roman skepticism. Sextus Empiricus advises that we should suspend judgment about virtually all beliefs, that is, we should neither affirm any belief as true nor deny any belief as false. This view is known as Pyrrhonian skepticism. Sextus did not deny the possibility of knowledge. He criticizes the Academic skeptic's claim that nothing is knowable as being an affirmative belief. Instead, Sextus advocates simply giving up belief: that is, suspending judgment about whether or not anything is knowable.

Most of this information was obtained from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

 

Greek Theater

Tragedy (late 6th century BC), comedy (486 BC), and the satire play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a common cultural identity. Western theatre originated in Athens and its drama has had a significant and sustained impact on Western culture as a whole.




                 
Aeschylus                                     Euripides                                  Sophocles

Greek Mythology


Zeus

Poseidon


Athena


Hades


Hermes


Dionysus


Artemis


Atlas


Amazon woman


Centaur


Orpheus


Pegasus


Perseus

`
Aeolus


Prometheus


Cerberus

                                                                                  
                                     Theseus                                                                             Heracles / Hercules                                                                        Muses                                                                       Apollo



 


Greek gods can be divided into eight classes:

THE FIRST CLASS: The First Born gods. These were the primeval beings that emerged at creation to form the very fabric of universe: Earth, Sea, Sky, Night, Day, etc. Although they were divinities they were purely elemental in form: Gaia was the literal Earth, Pontos was the Sea, and Ouranos (Uranus) was the Dome of Heaven. However they were sometimes represented assuming anthropomorphic shape, albeit ones that were indivisible from their native element. Gaia the earth, for example, might manifest herself as a matronly woman half-risen from the ground and the sea might lift her head above the waves in the shape of a sea-formed woman.

THE SECOND CLASS: The Nature Elements and Nymphai, who nurtured life in the four elements: fresh-water (Naiades), forest (Dryades), beast-loving (Satyroi), manne Tritones, etc.

THE THIRD CLASS: The Body and Mind Spirits: Sleep (Hypnos), Love (Eros), Joy (Euphrosyne), Hate (Ens), Fear (Phobos), Death (Thanatos), Old Age (Geras), etc.

THE FOURTH CLASS: The Gods who controlled the forces of nature and bestowed civilized arts upon mankind.

Sky Gods: Hellos (Sun), Anemoi (Winds: Boreas was the north wind and bringer of cold winter air; Notus was the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and autumn, and Zephyrus was the west wind and bringer of light spring and early summer breezes; Eurus, the east wind,).

Sea Gods: The Nereides, Triton, Glaukos, etc

Underworld Gods: Persephone, Hekate (goddess of witchcraft, ghosts, magic and mythology)

Agricultural-Earth Gods: Ploutos (wealth), etc

Pastoral Earth Gods: Pan (god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music), Aristaios (son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, patron god of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was also a culture-hero and taught humanity dairy skills (including cheese making) and the use of nets and traps in hunting, as well as how to cultivate olives.), etc

City Gods: Hestia (goddess of the hearth, of the domesticity and the family), the Horae (the Hours: three goddesses controlling orderly life. They were daughters of Zeus and Themis, half-sisters to the Moirae. There were two generations of Horae: The first generation consisted of Thallo, Auxo, and Carpo, who were the goddesses of the seasons (the Greeks only recognized spring, summer and autumn); The second generation comprised Eunomia, Dike, and Eirene, who were law and order goddesses that maintained the stability of society, etc

Olympian Gods: Zeus, Poseidon, The Muses, Hebe (goddess of youth), etc

Titan Gods: Themis, Kronos, Prometheus, etc

Deified Mortals: Heracles, Asklepios, etc

THE FIFTH CLASS: The 12 Olympian Gods who governed the universe and commanded the legions of lesser gods and spirits. They were Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Artemis, Apollo, Ares, Athena, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, Dionysus, and Hestia.

THE SIXTH CLASS: The Constellations which circled the heavenly night sky. Every constellation, including the twelve signs of the Zodiac, was possessed by one or more spirits: Saggitarius was the centaur Kheiron, Gemini was the Dioskouroi Twins (Castor and Pollux: the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, etc.

THE SEVENTH CLASS: The Fabulous Monsters, Beasts, and Giants of myth. They were semi-divine creatures, closely related to the gods: Giants, Dragon, Centaurs, Cerberus, Sphinx, Sirens, etc.

THE EIGHTH CLASS: The Semi-Divine Heroes, who were worshipped after death as minor divinities. They included great heroes like Achilles, Theseus and Perseus; heroines such as Almena, Helene and Baubo; and founding kings like Erikhthonios, Kadmos and Pelops.

There were many divinities in the Greek pantheon that fell into more than one of these categories.

THE TWELVE OLYMPIAN GODS

The Greek Pantheon was ruled by a council of twelve great gods known as the Olympians, namely Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Hephaestus, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Dionysus, and sometimes Hestia. These twelve gods demanded worship from all their subjects. Those who failed to honor any one of the Twelve with due sacrifice and libation were duly punished. Directly and through a host of divine minions, the twelve gods governed all aspects of human life.

ZEUS

Modern Spellings: Zeus

Roman Name: Jupiter, Jove

God of: King of Heaven, Sky, Weather, Fate, Kingship

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: Hera

Offspring: Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hermes, Dionysus, Heracles.

Animals: Golden eagle, Wolf

Plants: Oak, Celery

Iconography: Lightning bolt, Lotus staff, Eagle, Oak wreath

POSEIDON

Modern Spelling: Poseidon

Roman Name:  Neptune

God of:  King of the Seas, Rivers, Earthquakes, Horses

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: Amphitrite

Offspring: Triton

Animals: Horse, Bull, Dolphin

Plants: Seaweed, Pine Tree

Iconography:  Trident, Fish

HERA

Modern Spelling: Hera

Roman Name: Juno

Goddess of: Queen of Heaven, the Sky, Women, Marriage, Impregnation

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: Zeus

Offspring: Ares, Hephaestus, Eileithyia (goddess of childbirth and midwiving,), Hebe.

Animals: Cuckoo, Peacock, Crane, Hawk, Cow (Heifer), Lion

Plants: Chaste Tree, Pomegranate

Iconography: Lotus staff, Crown, Lion

DEMETER

Modern Spelling: Demeter

Roman Name: Ceres

Goddess of: Agriculture, Grain & Bread, the Afterlife

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: None

Offspring: Persephone, Ploutos (wealth)

Animals: Serpent, Swine, Gecko

Plants: Wheat, Barley, Poppy, Mint

Iconography: Grain Sheaf, Lotus Staff, Torch, Cornucopia

APOLLO

Modern Spelling: Apollo

Roman Name: Apollo

God of: Music, Prophecy, Education, Healing & Disease

Parents: God Zeus and Titanis Leto

Spouse: None

Offspring: Asklepios, and others.

Animals: Swan, Raven, Mouse, Wolf

Plants: Laurel, Larkspur

Iconography: Lyre, Laurel wreath or branch, Bow & arrows, Delphic tripod

ARTEMIS

Modern Spelling: Artemis

Roman Name: Diana

Goddess of: Hunting, Wild Animals, Children, Choirs, Disease

Parents: God Zeus & Titanis Leto

Spouse: None (Virgin Goddess)

Children None (Virgin Goddess)

Animals: Deer, Bear, Wild boar, Guinea fowl, Quail

Plants: Cypress, Walnut, Amaranth-flower

Iconography: Bow & arrows, Hunting spears, Lyre, Deer

ATHENE

Modern Spelling: Athena

Roman Name: Minerva

Goddess of: War craft, Heroism, Wisdom, Pottery, Weaving, Olives & Oil

Parents: God Zeus & Titanis Metis

Spouse: None (Virgin Goddess)

Offspring: None (Virgin Goddess)

Animals: Little Owl, Crow

Plants: Olive Tree

Iconography: Greek helmet, Aegis (Goat-skin breastplate), Spear

ARES

Modern Spelling: Ares

Roman Name: Mars

God of: War, Battle, Manliness

Parents: God Zeus & Goddess Hera

Spouse: Aphrodite (mistress)

Offspring: Deimos (personification of dread), Phobos (personification of fear and horror)

Animals: Serpent, Vulture, Woodpecker, Eagle-owl

Plants: Perhaøs Manna Ash

Iconography: Helmet, Spear

APHRODITE

Modern Spelling: Aphrodite

Roman Name: Venus

Goddess of: Love, Beauty, Pleasure, Procreation

Parents: God Zeus & Titanis Dione; or Born of the sea foam (Uranus’ testicles)

Spouse: Hephaestus, later Ares; many lovers

Offspring: Eros

Animals: Turtle dove, Sparrow, Goose, Hare

Plants: Apple Tree, Rose, Myrtle, Myrrh Tree, Anemone, Lettuce

Iconography: Eros (winged godling), Apple, Dove

HERMES

Modern Spelling: Hermes

Roman Name: Mercury

God of: Animal Husbandry, Travel, Trade, Athletics, Language, Thievery, Good Luck, Guide of the Dead, Herald of the Gods

Parents: God Zeus & Nymph Maya

Spouse: None

Children: Pan

Animals: Tortoise, Sheep, Cattle, Hawk

Plants: Crocus, Strawberry Tree

Iconography: Herald’s Rod, Traveler’s Cap, Winged Boots

HEPHAISTOS

Modern Spelling: Hephaestus

Roman Name: Vulcanus (Vulcan)

God of: Metalworking, Fire, Building, Sculpture, Volcanism

Parents: Goddess Hera (no father)

Spouse: Aphrodite or Kharis

Offspring:

Animals: Donkey, Crane

Plants: Fennel

Iconography: Hammer, Tongs, Anvil, Donkey, Crane-head

DIONYSOS

Modern Spelling: Dionysus

Roman Name: Liber, Bacchus

God of: Wine, Drunkenness, Madness, Parties, Vegetation, the Afterlife

Parents: God Zeus & Princess Semele

Spouse: Ariadne

Offspring:

Animals: Leopard, Lynx, Tiger, Serpent, Bull, Goat, Donkey

Plants: Grape-vine, Ivy, Bindweed, Silver Fir

Iconography: Thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff), Grapes, Ivy wreath, Leopard

HESTIA

Modern Spelling: Hestia

Roman Name: Vesta

Goddess of: Home, Hearth, Family, Meals, Sacrificial offerings

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: None (Virgin Goddess)

Offspring: None (Virgin Goddess)

Animals: Swine

Plants: Chaste Tree

Iconography: Chaste tree branch. Head veil Kettle

HAIDES

Modern Spelling: Hades

Roman Name: Pluto

God of: King of the Underworld, the Dead, Death

Parents: Titan Kronos & Titanis Rhea

Spouse: Persephone

Offspring:

Animals: Screech owl

Plants: Asphodel, Mint, White Poplar

Iconography: Cornucopia, Bird-tipped staff

PERSEPHONE

Modern Spelling: Persephone

Roman Name: Proserpina

Goddess of: Queen of the Underworld, the Afterlife, Spring Growth, Grain

Parents: God Zeus & Goddess Demeter

Spouse: Hades

Offspring:

Animals: Screech owl

Plants Wheat, Narcissus, Black Poplar, Mint, Asphodel

Iconography: Eleusinian torch or torches, Wheat sheaf

The information for this section was taken from http://www.theoi.com/Pantheon.html

 

The Olympics

         

      

         

Greek Costumes

   


4-ROME

Topic 5: Rome and the Rise of Christianity                                                                                                                                               

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)

                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)

                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

IB4:  Map the expansion of Rome and suggest reasons for its successful expansion.

IIB6:  Identify factors in which led to the decline of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

Essential Content:

Vocabulary/Identification:   Republic, Patrician, Plebeian, Consul, praetor, Latins, Etruscans, assembly, Council of Pleb, Twelve tables, Law of Nations, Rome, Sicily, Carthage, triumvirate, dictator, imperator, Pepmpey, Julius Caesar, Octavian, Augustus, Pax Romana, paterfamilias, Insulae, Spartacus, procurator, New Testament, Clergy, Jesus, Constantine

 

==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

Free Videos on History

-Youtube

Engineering an Empire: Rome...History Channel, 10 Parts... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vbPJL8m9F8
Hannibal, The African Warrior, History Channel (43 minutes): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzZObIW5aOg
Decisive Battles: Spartacus (History Channel)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMn-Ty7bahg
Decisive Battles: Rome vs. Britain (Boudica) (History Channel)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bAIqTeopCsA
Decisive Battles: Attila the Hun (History Channel)...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYm_4N0GFQw
Roman Generals & Emperors... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mn8kTNIvndo&feature=fvst

-Study.com (videos about 5 minutes each)

Republic                                                                                                           Empire

1 Roman Myths and Religion
The Founding of Ancient Rome & Rome's Early History
3 The Seven Kings of Rome
4 Formation of the Roman Republic: Offices, Institutions and History
5 The Latin, Samnite & Pyrrhic Wars
6 The Punic Wars: Causes, Summary & Hannibal
7 The Political Structure of the Roman Republic

8 Roman Engineering and Architecture
9 Roman Art: History, Characterstics & Style
10 Roman Law and the Pax Romana: Definition, Meaning & History
11 Stoicism: Understanding Roman Moral Philosophy
12 Atomism: Natural Philosophy and Lucretius
13 Reform in the Roman Republic: The Gracchi, Marius & Sulla
14 Cicero: History & Philosophy
15 The Death of the Republic: Julius Caesar & Pompey
16 Rise of the Roman Republic: Summary of Events
1 The Early Christian Church and Its Ties to Judaism
2 The Early Roman Empire and the Reign of Augustus Caesar

3 The Aeneid by Virgil
4 Augustus' Propagandists: Virgil, Horace and Ovid
5 Judaism and Christianity in the Roman Empire
6 Emperors of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
7 The Year of the Four Emperors & the Flavian Dynasty
8 The Five Good Emperors of Rome & the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty
9 Emperors of the Severan Dynasty
10 Division of the Roman Empire: Diocletian & the 3rd Century Crisis
11 The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity
12 St. Augustine's City of God
13 The Fall of Rome
14 Justinian's Code of Law and Roman Emperors After Constantine
15 Early Christian Art: History, Characteristics & Symbolism
16 Early Christian Architecture: Examples, History & Characteristics

-Crash Course (10 minutes each):

The Roman Empire... Or Republic: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPf27gAup9U
Christianity from Judaism to Constantine: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TG55ErfdaeY
Fall of The Roman Empire...in the 15th Century: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PszVWZNWVA

 

-Khan Academy (History)

 

Altar of Augustan Peace: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/Ancient/v/ara-pacis-augustae--altar-of-augustan-peace---13-9-b-c-e---rome
Ancient Rome: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/Ancient/v/a-tour-through-ancient-rome-in-320-c-e

-Annenberg Learner (28 minutes each)

The Rise of Rome... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=827
The Roman Empire... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=828
Early Christianity....
http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=829

Art History Free Videos:

-Otis College:

Roman Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWh7CAb2DAI

-Khan Academy:

Ancient Rome: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures-1/ancient-rome/v/a-tour-through-ancient-rome-in-320-c-e


 

VOCABULARY:

1-PATRICIANS: "FATHERS OF THE STATE"; LAND OWNERS, NOBLES, RULERS.

2-PLEBEIANS: FARMERS, TRADERS, COMMON PEOPLE. CITIZENS WHO PAID TAXES AND SERVED IN THE ARMY.

3-REPUBLIC: CITIZENS VOTE TO ELECT REPRESENTATIVES. PLEBEIANS WERE NOT ALLOWED - AT THE BEGINNING- TO BE SENATORS (NOT A DEMOCRACY).

4-PLANK: PLATFORM IN ROMAN WAR SHIPS TO BOARD CARTHAGINIAN SHIPS.

5-CENTURY: INFANTRY COMPANY OF A HUNDRED SOLDIERS / CENTURION

6-COHORT: BATTALION OF SIX CENTURIES.

7-LEGION: A Roman legion normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. The organization of legions varied greatly over time but they were typically composed of perhaps 6,000 soldiers, divided into "cohorts". Cohorts were divided into "centuries".

8-PRAETOR: Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, usually in the field, and an elected magistrate assigned varied duties.

9-CRUCIFIXION:

10-AUGUSTUS: REVEREND ONE, GOD.

11-CAESAR: EMPEROR.

12-PROVINCIES: LANDS OUTSIDE ITALY PART OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

13-PAX ROMANA: OBEY THE RULES AND PAY TAXES TO ROME TO AVOID WAR; ORDER WAS ESTABLISHED AND COMMERCE FLOURISHED.

14-COLOSSEUM: SPORT AND CIRCUS ARENA.

15-GLADIATOR: SLAVE FORCED TO FIGHT FOR HIS LIFE.

16-BARBARIC TRIBES: PEOPLES WITH CULTURES DIFFERENT FROM ROMAN ( CELTS, FRANKS, GERMANS, GOTHS, VANDALS, AND OTHERS).

17-VETO: A veto, Latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop an official action, especially enactment of a piece of legislation.

18-ROMAN TRIBES: 35 DISTRICTS WERE PLEBEIANS LIVED.

19-CONSUL: Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire.

20-LATINS: The original Latins were an Italian tribe (a group of people) inhabiting central and south-central Italy. Through conquest by their most populous city-state, Rome, the original Latins culturally (through their language) "Romanized" or "Latinized" the rest of Italy and eventually most of Europe. In this way the word "Latin" ceased to mean a particular people or ethnicity. Subsequently, other regions, particularly the European ones such as Spain, Portugal and France, became lastingly culturally "Latinized" by the Roman Empire.

21-ETRUSCANS: A civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (ca. 700 BC) until its assimilation into the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman kingdom, it flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. Rome was founded within or adjacent to Etruscan territory, and there is considerable evidence that early Rome was dominated by Etruscans until the Romans sacked Veii in 396 BC.

22-TRIUMVIRATE: A triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men") is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals.

23-ROMAN DICTATOR: In the Roman Republic, the dictator (“one who dictates”), was an extraordinary magistrate with the absolute authority. The Roman Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to nominate a dictator;  only one man was appointed, and, as the highest magistrate, he was not legally liable for official actions; 24 lictors attended him. It was a temporary assignment.

24-IMPERATOR: The Latin word Imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors.

25-PATERFAMILIAS: The head of a Roman family. The term is Latin for "father of the family" or the "owner of the family estate". The pater familias was always a Roman citizen. Roman law and tradition established the power of the pater familias within the community of his own extended familia. He held legal privilege over the property of the familia, and varying levels of authority over his dependents: these included his wife and children, certain other relatives through blood or adoption, clients, freedmen and slaves.

26-INSULAE: In Roman architecture, an insula (Latin for "island," plural insulae) was a kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of ancient Rome, including ordinary people of lower- or middle-class status (the plebs) and all but the wealthiest from the upper-middle class (the equites). The traditional elite and the very wealthy lived in domus, large single-family residences, but the two kinds of housing were intermingled in the city and not segregated into separate neighborhoods. The ground-level floor of the insula was used for tabernae, shops and businesses, with the living space upstairs. Like modern apartment buildings, an insula might have a name, usually referring to the owner of the building.

27-NEW TESTAMENT: The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament. The New Testament deal explicitly with 1st century Christianity  and it frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world, and both reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology. The New Testament is an anthology, a collection of works written at different times by various authors. In almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books. The original texts were written beginning around AD 50 in Koine Greek, the lingua franca of the eastern part of the Roman Empire where they were composed. All of the works which would eventually be incorporated into the New Testament would seem to have been written no later than the mid-2nd century.

28-PUNIC WARS: The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 B.C to 146 B.C. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place. The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus, meaning "Carthaginian", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the conflict of interests between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic.

29-MACEDONIAN WARS: The Macedonian and Seleucid wars were a series of conflicts fought by Rome during and after the second Punic war, in the eastern Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and the Aegean seas, against the Macedonians (part of the Greek portion of Alexander's Empire) . Along with the Punic wars, they resulted in Roman control or influence over the entire Mediterranean basin.


 

LEADERS

1-ROMULUS AND REMUS: TWINS WHO FOUNDED ROME.

2-PYRRHUS: GREEK GENERAL WHO FOUGHT ROME.

3-HANNIBAL: CARTHAGINIAN GENERAL WHO FOUGHT ROME.

4-CRASSUS: ROMAN POLITICIAN AND GENERAL WHO FOUGHT SPARTACUS.

5-POMPEY: ROMAN GENERAL

6-JULIUS CAESAR: ROMAN GENERAL, DICTATOR, AND HISTORIAN.

7-BRUTUS: CAESAR’S GODSON WHO PARTICIPATED IN HIS KILLING.

8-OCTAVIAN / AUGUSTUS CAESAR: CAESAR’S NEPHEW, ROMAN FIRST EMPEROR. THE GOLDEN AGE OF ROME.

9-MARK ANTHONY: CAESAR’S CLOSEST FRIEND, CLEOPATRA HUSBAND

10-SPARTACUS: THRACIAN WHO DESERTED THE ROMAN ARMY AND WAS CAPTURED AND SOLD AS A SLAVE TO A GLADIATORS’ SCHOOL. LEADER OF A SLAVES’ REBELLION.

11-TIBERIUS: AUGUSTUS’ STEPSON, 2nd. EMPEROR OF ROME

12-CALIGULA: 3rd. ROMAN EMPEROR. A HORSE SENATOR.

13-CLAUDIUS: 4th. ROMAN EMPEROR, MESSALINA’S HUSBAND

14-NERO: CLAUDIUS’ STEPSON, 5th. ROMAN EMPEROR, "ARTIST", SET FIRE TO ROME.

15-JESUS CHRIST (4 BC. - AD. 29) -MISTAKE OF 4 YEARS MADE BY DIONYSUS THE EXIGUOUS (AD. 525). (749 -782 -ROMAN FOUNDATION: 753 BC.)

1...2... 3..................................749.................................................782 ROME CALENDAR

753 BC...................................4BC................................................AD. 29 Gregorian Calendar

16-HEROD THE GREAT  / HEROD ANTIPAS : KINGS OF JUDEA - JUDGED JESUS CHRIST AND SENT HIM TO PONTIUS PILATE.

17-TRAJAN: ROMAN EMPEROR

18-MARCUS AURELIUS: ROMAN EMPEROR & PHILOSOPHER

19-ATTILA: KING OF THE HUNS

20-DIOCLETIAN: EMPEROR WHO DIVIDED THE EMPIRE IN TWO

21-CONSTANTINE : EMPEROR WHO ADOPTED CHRISTIANITY AS THE OFFICIAL RELIGION OF THE EMPIRE & MOVED THE CAPITAL TO BYZANTIUM.
 

Rome: Republic & Empire

1-Origins (753-507 BCE.):
Central location of Rome. Tiber River. Apennine range along the peninsula. Alps on the north. Mild climate. Romulus, Remus, and the wolf. The Palatine Hill: the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome (The city was founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill in 753 BCE.). Latins: myth that they were descendants of Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas (Troy) (See Virgil's Aeneid). Latin city-states, Rome one of them. Greeks in the south of Italy. Etruscan arrived in northern Italy about 800 BCE, maybe from Anatolia (Lydia) and conquered most of Italy.

2-Republic (507-31 BCE.):
Rome rebelled and gained independence from the Etruscans in 509. It also replaced Etruscan monarchy with a republican system based on a Senate, composed of the nobles (patricians) of the city, along with popular assemblies (political participation) and elected magistrates annually. In the Battle of Lake Regillus in 493 BCE, Rome won the supremacy over the Latin countries.  This supremacy became fixed when the Romans subdued the Etruscan cities of Volsci, Aequi, and Veii (394 BCE). Rome was now the dominant city in Latium. Rome was attacked by the Gaul in 387 BCE. Rome hastily rebuilt its buildings and went on the offensive, conquering the Etruscans and seizing territory from the Gaul in the north and pushing south against other Latins and the Greeks. Etruscans were assimilated.  Punic Wars against Carthage (264-202 BCE). Macedonian Wars against Hellenistic kingdoms (200-146 BCE). Roman military: the legions. Real center of power in Rome: Senate (members served for life, passed laws and elected consuls). Common people: Plebeians. Roman Constitution. Publication of the laws: Twelve Stone Tablets (450 BCE) to prevent arbitrary decisions and protect private property and individual rights. Tribunes (power of veto). Economic and social mobility led to individualism. Paterfamilias & Patron / Client relationship: socio-political subordination. Women were “like children in the eyes of the law”, but less constrained than the Greeks. Polytheism, sacrifices and rituals (equated with Greek gods). Male citizens, owners of land, had to serve in the army. Long absences led to the loss of their lands. Conquered populations accepting Roman rule (pay taxes) received Roman citizenship; many people were attracted by the culture and power of Rome. Conquest of Gaul / Celts (France) in 59-51 BCE by Julius Caesar. Governors for conquered provinces. Wealth from the conquests ended in hands of upper classes. Cheap slave labor (became foundation of the economy) provided by prisoners of war replaced bankrupted farmers, who now had a hard time to find work: growing idle urban masses, prone to riot. Poor, propertyless men are accepted into Roman Legions and promised farms upon retirement (100’s BCE). Army loyal to generals, not to the Republic / state. Civil Wars between military factions. Dictatorial control. Gladiators’ War or War of Spartacus: Slave rebellion (73-71 BCE). The Triumvirate (60-53 BCE):   Crassus, Pompeius, and Caesar dominated Roman politics for several years. It was opposed in the Senate by Cato and Cicero. Julius Caesar eliminated all rivals. Caesar is murdered on March 15th. 44 BC in the Senate. Second Triumvirate (43-33 BCE.): Political alliance of Octavian, Caesar’s grandnephew (later Augustus) and generals Marcus Lepidus and Marcus Antonius. Anthony moved to Alexandria with Cleopatra VII of Egypt, even bearing children with her. Battle of Actium (31 BCE). Both Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide in Alexandria (30 BCE).

 3-Empire (31 BCE.-476 CE.):
Octavian had control over the majority of Rome's legions. In January of 27 BC, the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. Octavian proclaimed the Roman Principate. He tried to maintain the appearance of the Republic (republican traditions were very strong among people), but in reality became an emperor, even when he never called himself king or emperor. He was in control of the offices of proconsul, tribune for life, censor, imperium of the city of Rome (prefect). In 12 BCE he also became pontifex maximus. In 2 BCE, he was also given the title pater patriae, or "father of the country”. However, the dynastic principle never took deep root. He allied himself with wealthy merchants and landowners and created a new civil service to administer the empire for him. Emperors in the future were in reality chosen by the army; many of them were deified. The Twelve Tables were replaced by decrees of the Senate. The empire was controlled through a network of towns and cities. Walls, forts, and garrisons built to protect borders. Pax Romana and web of roads promoted commerce. Spread of Latin language and way of life (Romanization) in western provinces. Hellenistic cultured prevailed in the east. Jesus (rabbi / teacher, prophet, or political revolutionary) and the birth of Christianity. The Apostles carried on the work. First converts were disenfranchised people (women, slaves, gentiles, the poor). They suffered persecution and death. Third Century Crisis (235-284 CE): Political, military and economic problems. Corruption. Assassination of many emperors. Germanic tribes raids into the empire. Struggle against foreign enemies led to unending demands for money (higher taxes). War interrupted trade. People abandoned cities. Diocletian (284-305 CE) reforms (control prices to halt inflation, reduce taxes, stop exodus of people, etc.) tried to stop crisis. Reorganized and separated the empire in two (East and West). Constantine (306-337), first Christian Roman Emperor. Transfer of imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium / Constantinople / Istanbul (324). After the fall of Rome (476) under the attack of Germanic tribes, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Justinian (527-565) tried to re-conquer territories of Roman Empire.

Roman contributions: Aqueducts, Public baths, Cement, Dome, Architecture (Coliseum, Pantheon), Roads, Roman numerals, Roman calendar, Roman law, the Senate, the Republic, Latin: Romance languages, Art.

  

 

 

 

Zeus/Jupiter

 

Electra

 

Teucer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dardanus

 

 

 

Batea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ilus

 

 

Erichthonius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Priam

 

 

 

Anchises

 

Aphrodite/Venus

 

Latinus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creusa

 

 

 

 

 

Aeneas

 

 

 

Lavinia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ascanius

 

 

 

 

 

Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silvius

 

 

 

Aeneas Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brutus of Britain

 

 

Latinus Silvius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Numitor

 

Amulius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rhea Silvia

 

Ares/Mars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hersilia

 

Romulus

 

Remus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kings of Rome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PATRICIANS (10% OF ROMAN POPULATION) WERE THE RULING CLASS. SENATORS WERE PATRICIANS.
 

DEMOCRATIZATION

-494 BC. : PLEBEIANS RECEIVED THE RIGHT TO ELECT 2 TRIBUNES THAT LATER WERE INCREASED TO 10 (REPRESENT AND PROTECT THEIR INTERESTS). TRIBUNES SAT OUTSIDE THE SENATE’S DOOR AND COULD VETO LAWS.

-450 BC. : THE TWELVE BRONZE TABLES (THE LAWS OF ROME).

-280 BC. : PLEBEIANS WERE ALLOWED TO HOLD POLITICAL OFFICES AND BE ELECTED SENATORS. ONE CONSUL COULD COME FROM THE PLEBEIANS.
 
 

THE TWELVE TABLES
(451-450 B.C.)

This is the earliest attempt by the Romans to create a CODE OF LAW; it is also the earliest (surviving) piece of literature coming from the Romans. In the midst of a perennial struggle for legal and social protection and civil rights between the privileged class (patricians) and the common people (plebeians) a commission of ten men (Decemviri) was appointed (ca. 455 B.C.) to draw up a code of law which would be binding on both parties and which the magistrates (the 2 consuls) would have to enforce impartially. The commission produced enough statutes (most of them were already `customary law' anyway) to fill TEN TABLETS, but this attempt seems not to have been entirely satisfactory--especially to the plebeians. A second commission of ten was therefore appointed (450 B.C.) and two additional tablets were drawn up. The originals, said to have been inscribed on bronze, were probably destroyed when the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in the invasion of 387 B.C. The Twelve Tables give the student of Roman culture a chance to look into the workings of a society which is still quite agrarian in outlook and operations, and in which the main bonds which hold the society together and allow it to operate are: the clan (genos, gens), patronage (patron/client), and the inherent (and inherited) right of the patricians to leadership (in war, religion, law, and government). 

TABLE I Procedure: for courts and trials
TABLE II Trials, continued.
TABLE III Debt
TABLE IV Rights of fathers (paterfamilias) over the family
TABLE V Legal guardianship and inheritance laws
TABLE VI Acquisition and possession
TABLE VII Land rights
TABLE VIII Torts and delictis (Laws of injury)
TABLE IX Public law
TABLE X Sacred law
TABLE XI Supplement I
TABLE XII Supplement II

Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems
in Ancient Rome and the modern United States

Title/role

Rome

U.S.

Judge/presider

Praetor or magistrate
Elected
Has consilium of three legal experts to consult

Judge or Justice
Appointed or elected
Has at least some legal expertise and extensive law library

Jury

Quaestiones
32 to 75 jurors, depending on type of case
Chosen from album judicum, list of men of senatorial or equites class
Verdict decided by majority vote

Usually 12 jurors
Selected from a panel of citizens
Individually examined, accepted, or rejected by prosecution and defense
Verdict usually must be unanimous

Verdict

C = condemno, A = absolvo
By secret ballot
Result announced by praetor

Guilty or not guilty
By unanimous decision but each juror's vote can be polled in open court
Decision read aloud by judge

Prosecutor

Accusator
Private citizen

Public official elected or appointed

Defense attorney

Patronus or advocatus
May not accept money, although favors allowed

Professional lawyer
Accepts retainer or fee or works pro bono publico

Defendant

Reus
Innocent until proven guilty
Kept under house arrest or imprisoned until trial
Usually in private home

Innocent until proven guilty
Imprisoned or free on bail or own word until trial

Witnesses

Subscriptores, required by magistrate's subpoena

Subpoena can be issued

Clerks

Scribae to record events

Recorder/stenographer
Makes word-for-word transcript of proceedings (required in event of appeal)

 

ROMAN EXPANSION

-ROMAN DEFEATED THE ETRUSCANS.

-280 BC. : GREEKS SENT PYRRHUS TO FIGHT ROME ("ANOTHER SUCH VICTORY AND WE ARE LOST").

-PUNIC WARS:

264-241 BC. : FIRST PUNIC WAR (NAVY).

218-202 BC. : SECOND PUNIC WAR (HANNIBAL ATTACKED ROME AND SCIPIO THE AFRICANUS ATTACKED CARTHAGE).

150 BC. : CARTHAGE IS DESTROYED.

200-197 / 171-168 BC. : 2nd. AND 3rd. MACEDONIAN WARS: GREECE BECAME A ROMAN PROVINCE.

MEDITERRANEAN SEA : MARE NOSTRUM.

133 BC. : ROME CONQUERED ASIA MINOR.
 


 

 

GENERALS AND SOLDIERS


                                                                                                     The Turtle

-60 BC. : FIRST TRIUMVIRATE (CRASSUS, POMPEY, AND JULIUS CAESAR): THE GOVERNMENT PASSED TO GENERALS’ HANDS.

-48 BC. : CAESAR DEFEATED POMPEY AND BECAME DICTATOR FOR LIFE: EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATOR , BUILDING PROJECTS TO EASE UNEMPLOYMENT, LAWS AGAINST CRIME, CHANGED THE CALENDAR, CONQUERED THE GAUL AND BRITAIN, USED THE SENATE AS HE PLEASED UNTIL.....

-44 BC. : SENATORS STABBED CAESAR IN A SENATE MEETING

-SECOND TRIUMVIRATE (OCTAVIAN, MARK ANTHONY, AND MARCUS LEPIDUS).

-MARK ANTHONY MARRIED CLEOPATRA, QUEEN OF EGYPT. OCTAVIAN DECLARED WAR AGAINST THEM.

-31 BC. : OCTAVIAN NAVY DEFEATED EGYPTIAN ARMY. MARK ANTHONY AND CLEOPATRA COMMITTED SUICIDE.

-31 - 14 BC. : OCTAVIAN BECAME THE FIRST ROMAN EMPEROR (AUGUSTUS CAESAR).
 

SLAVES

-1/3 OF ROME INHABITANTS WERE SLAVES.

-SLAVES WERE USED AS SERVANTS, GLADIATORS, EUNUCHS, ETC.

-73 - 71 BC. : GLADIATORIAL WAR (SPARTACUS). CRASSUS WITH 8 LEGIONS DEFEATED THE REBELLION (6,000 PRISONERS WERE CRUCIFIED).
 

 

CHRISTIANITY

 
Nativity                                                           Teaching                                     Crucifixion

 
The Catacombs (Used by Christians to meet & hide)  Christians sent to the Coliseum to be eaten by the lions.

 

 

ROMAN EMPIRE (27 BC. - AD. 476)

AUGUSTUS: THE GOLDEN AGE OF ROME ( 27 BC. - AD. 14)

APPEARANCE OF PAST REPUBLICAN STYLE.

REBUILDING OF THE CITY (NEW TEMPLES, THEATERS BATHS, AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS.)

NEW ROADS AND A LARGE AQUEDUCT (SEE APPIAN WAY).

EMPEROR TRAJAN (AD. 98 - 117)

CONQUERED NEW TERRITORIES

GAVE FREE GRAIN TO THE POOR

ESTABLISHED THE FREE ENTRANCE TO THEATER AND CIRCUS

CREATED LOW - COST LOANS TO FARMERS

EMPEROR HADRIAN (AD. 117 - 138)

PASSED LAWS TO PROTECT WOMEN AND CHILDREN

LOWERED THE TAXES

BUILT NEW BUILDINGS

WALL IN BRITAIN

EMPEROR MARCUS AURELIUS (AD. 161 - 180)

- DEFENDED THE EMPIRE FROM GERMAN ATTACKS

-A PHILOSOPHER

DECLINE OF ROME

EMPEROR DIOCLETIAN (AD. 244-311 )

-REFORMS TO FACE THE CRISIS

-REORGANIZED & DIVIDED THE EMPIRE IN TWO: WESTERN & EASTERN.

-THE DIOCLETIAN PERSECUTION (303-311)LAST, LARGEST & BLOODIEST PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS.

EMPEROR CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (AD. 272 - 337)

-MOVED THE CAPITAL CITY OF THE EMPIRE TO BYZANTIUM (CONSTANTINOPLE) IN THE EAST.

-CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY: LEGALIZED IT.

AD. 476: ODOACRO, SON OF ONE OF THE ATTILA’S GENERALS (HUNS) , CONQUERED ROME AND FINISHED THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE .

 

ROMAN ENTERTAINMENT


Chariot Race in the Circus Maximus


Gladiators in the Colosseum

  Public Bath

 

ROMAN CONTRIBUTIONS


The Aqueduct


The Pantheon: The first vaulted ceiling / Dome (Use of Cement / Concrete)

Click to See PowerPoints on Roman Art: http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/

 

Fall of Western Roman Empire:

The Byzantine Empire will continue for another thousand years in the east (Asia Minor)

ROMAN COSTUMES


.==>   Ninth Grade <==

First Nine Weeks

1-THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY

Objectives

1-Review each of the fundamental themes of geography. (IA)

2-Describe the relationship between geography and historical events. (IA)

3-Identify the location of major geographic features and political divisions. (IA)

4-Explain the effects of geography on the settlement, migration, and growth patterns  in the development of civilizations and nation - states. (IA)

5-Explain the concept of culture and identify the components of a culture. (VA)

==> Please, Watch the following videos (Free)<===
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

1-What is Geography (Youtube)...4 minutes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pbgai3dK16Q
2-Why study Geography (Youtube)...4 minutes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SM4Q4yuSUPk&feature=related
3-Going Places with Geography (2 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27p2k1oot80
4-Geography Matters: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyhSHDGg-cw


Vocabulary

1-Peak: A point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a peak is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonyms.

2-Billion: 1,000,000,000. In scientific notation, it is written as 109.

3-Extinct: In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point.

4-Fossil: The preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The study of fossils across geological time, is the most important functions of the science of paleontology. Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years ago.

5-Crust: The crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle. The crust of Earth and other planetary bodies have been generated largely by igneous processes.

6-Lava: Lava refers both to molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption and the resulting rock after solidification and cooling. This molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth. When first erupted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid at temperatures from 700 °C to 1,200 °C (1,300 °F to 2,200 °F). Lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thyrotrophic and shear thinning properties.

7-Previous: Coming or occurring before something else; prior.

8-Estimate: To form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding the worth, amount, size, weight, etc., of something; to calculate approximately. To form an opinion about something or someone; to judge.

9-Tributary: A tributary or affluent is a stream or river which flows into a main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river serve to drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater by leading the water out into an ocean or sea. A confluence where two or more bodies of water meet together, usually referring to the joining of tributaries.
10-Wend: To pursue or direct (one's way); to proceed or go.

11-Alluvial: Something that is loose, unconsolidated; sand or clay,  soil or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. When this loose alluvial material is deposited or cemented into a lithological unit, or lithified, it would be called an alluvial deposit.

12-Relocation: Relocation, also known as moving is the process of vacating a fixed location (such as a residence or business) and settling in a different one. A move can be to a nearby location within the same neighborhood, a much farther location in a different city, or sometimes a different country.

13-Reservoir: A reservoir or an artificial lake is used to store water. Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete. The term reservoir may also be used to describe underground reservoirs such as an oil or water well.

14-Controversy: Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of opinion.

15-Fluctuate: To shift back and forth uncertainly; to rise and fall.

16-ARCHIPELAGO: Sometimes called an island group, is a chain or cluster of islands.

17-BADLANDS: A type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. A terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, ravines, gullies, hoodoos and other such geological forms are common in badlands.

18-ICEBERG: An iceberg is a large piece of ice from freshwater that has broken off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water.

19-DESERT: A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Deserts are defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimeters (10 in) per year.

20-OCEAN: A major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean; a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria. These divisions are (in descending order of size):

21-SWAMP: A swamp is a wetland with some flooding of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water. A swamp generally has a large number of hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodical inundation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. The water of a swamp may be fresh water, brackish water or seawater.

22-CAPE: A cape is a point or body of land extending into a body of water, usually the sea

23-STRAIT: A strait or straits is a narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an unnavigable reef or archipelago.

24-PENINSULA: A piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland.

25-GULF: A large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea.

26-PLAIN: A plain is land with relatively low relief, that is flat or gently rolling. Prairies and steppes are types of plains, and the archetype for a plain is often thought of as a grassland, but plains in their natural state may also be covered in shrublands, woodland and forest, or vegetation may be absent in the case of sandy or stony plains in hot deserts. Types of flatlands for which the term is not generally used include those covered entirely and permanently by swamps, marshes, playas, or ice sheets.

27-PRAIRIE: Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay as well as the steppes of Eurasia.

28-CAVE: A cave or cavern is a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. The term applies to natural cavities some part of which is in total darkness. The word cave also includes smaller spaces like rock shelters, sea caves, and grottos.

29-WATERFALL: A waterfall is a place where flowing water rapidly drops in elevation as it flows over a steep region or a cliff.

30-FJORD: A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.

31-CHANNEL: A channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. A channel is also the natural or human-made deeper course through a reef, sand bar, bay, or any shallow body of water.

32-MOUNTAIN RANGE: A mountain range is a single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age; a component part of a mountain system or of a mountain chain or system.

33-CLIFF: A cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. Cliffs are formed as erosion landforms due to the processes of erosion and weathering that produce them. Cliffs are common on coasts, in mountainous areas, escarpments, and along rivers.

34-DELTA: A delta is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Deltas are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river.

35-VALLEY: A valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep river valley may be called a canyon or gorge.

36-ISLAND: An island is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot or holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago.

37-DUNE: A dune is a hill of sand built by aeolian processes. Dunes occur in different forms and sizes, formed by interaction with the wind.

38-ISTHMUS: An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with water forms on either side.

39-JUNGLE: A Jungle is an area of land in the tropics overgrown with dense vegetation.

40-FOREST: A forest, also referred to as the woods is an area with a high density of trees.

41-LAGOON: A lagoon is a body of shallow sea water or brackish water separated from the sea by some form of barrier.

42-LAKE: A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin, not to be confused with a lagoon: Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean, and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. However most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams.

43-CANYON: A deep ravine between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river.

44-TUNDRA: Tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes from Russia ( "uplands," "treeless mountain tract.") There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens.

45-STEPPE: A steppe is an eco-region, in the mountainous grasslands and shrub lands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrub lands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. The prairie (especially the short-grass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe. It may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest, but not dry enough to be a desert.

46-BUTTE: A butte is a conspicuous isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; it is smaller than mesas, plateaus, and tables.

47-PLATEAU: A plateau, also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly eroded plateau is called a dissected plateau. A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced by volcanic activity.

48-GEYSER: A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapor phase (steam).

 

Themes of Geography

1.1-LOCATION
1.1.1-EXACT (LONGITUDE & LATITUDE)
1.1.2-RELATIVE (NEXT TO..., BESIDE...)

1.2-PLACE
1.2.1-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: CLIMATE, SOIL, PLANTS, ANIMALS, WATER
1.2.2-HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS: HOUSES, TRANSPORT, LANGUAGE, RELIGION
1.2.3-POLITICAL: COUNTRIES

1.3-INTERACTION (PEOPLE/ENVIRONMENT): HUNT, FARM, IRRIGATE, DRY UP, BUILD, CUT DOWN FORESTS, WIPE OUT PESTS, POLLUTE AIR & WATER

1.4-MOVEMENT: PEOPLE, GOODS, IDEAS, TECHNOLOGY

1.5-REGION: AREA WITH SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

2-WORLD DIVISIONS (Social, Political, or Economical Reasons). D=> Developed Country (ies);  U=> Underdeveloped Country (ies); C=> Communist Country (ies); M=> Developing Country (ies).

1-West (D) / East (C)

2-North (D) / South (U)

3-First World (D) / Second World (C) / Third World (U)

4-Core (D) / Semi-Periphery (M) / Periphery (U)

5-Developed / Developing or Underdeveloped

6-Rich (D) / Poor (U)

7-Industrialized (D) / Agricultural (U)

8-Major World Regions (Common History, Religion, Culture, Economy)

8.1-Anglo America, 8.2-Latin America, 8.3-Western Europe

8.4-Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

8.5-North Africa and Southwest Asia, 8.6-Africa South of the Sahara

8.7-Southern Asia, 8.8-Eastern Asia, 8.9-South Pacific


9-World Religions

9.1-Christianity (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox)

9.2-Islam, 9.3-Buddhism, 9.4-Animism, 9.5-Hinduism, 9.6-Judaism

 

 

10-World Languages

10.1-Indo-Europeans, 10.1.1-Indo-Aryan, 10.1.2-Romances, 10.1.3-Norse Germanic, 10.1.4-Slavic, 10.1.5-Iranian

10.2-Sino-Tibetan, 10.2.1-Chinese, 10.2.2-Tibeto-Burmese, 10.2.3-Thai, 10.2.4-Vietnamese

10.3-Altaic, 10.3.1-Japanese, 10.3.2-Korean, 10.3.3-Mongolic, 10.3.4-Turkic,10.3.5-Uralic

10.4-Semi-Hamitic, 10.5-Niger-Congo, 10.6-Sudanic, 10.7-Amerindian, 10.8-Malayo-Polynesian

11-World Ethnicities
11.1-Physical Appearance
11.2-Socio-Economic & Political Content

12-CONTINENTS

LARGEST COUNTRIES

Rank

Country / Territory

Area (km²)

% of Total

—

World

148,939,063

100%

1

Russia

17,098,242

11.5%

2

Canada

9,970,610

6.7%

3,4
disputed

United States

9,629,091

6.5%

 China

9,598,086

6.4%

5

Brazil

8,514,877

5.7%

6

Australia

7,741,220

5.2%

 

WORLD POPULATION

Most Populated Cities

1 Mumbai 13,662,885 India

2

Karachi

12,130,000

Pakistan

3

Istanbul

11,372,613

 Turkey

4

Delhi

11,325,124

 India

5

São Paulo

10,886,518

Brazil

6

Moscow

10,452,000

Russia

7

Seoul

10,356,202

South Korea

8

Shanghai

10,231,000

 China

9

Mexico City

8,609,347

Mexico

10

Jakarta

8,576,788

Indonesia

11

Tokyo

8,535,792

 Japan

12

New York City

8,250,567

United States

13

Cairo

7,947,121

Egypt

14

Lagos

7,937,932

Nigeria

15

Kinshasa

7,843,000

Republic of Congo

16

Tehran

7,797,520

Iran

17

Beijing

7,699,297

China

 

SOME TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY

1-GLOBES

2-MAPS:

2.1-INTERRUPTED PROJECTION MAPS: CORRECT SIZES & SHAPES; NOT MEASURE DISTANCES ACROSS THE OCEANS.

2.2-MERCATOR PROJECTION MAPS: TRUE SHAPES, DISTORTED SIZES.

2.3-ROBINSON PROJECTION MAPS: CORRECT SIZES & SHAPES

2.4-CONTENT OF MAPS: POLITICAL, PHYSICAL, ROADS, WEATHER, ECONOMY, POPULATION, NATURAL RESOURCES.


INTERNET

 

POLITICAL MAPS

 

  

  

 

PHYSICAL MAPS

Africa

Asia

   

 


 

Europe


 

North America

South America


2. Byzantine Empire

Topic 1: Byzantium and Eastern European Empires                                                                                              Pacing:  Traditional:  8 Days   Block: 4 Days

 

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):      

World History      (Standard 1:  Utilize historical inquiry skills and analytical processes)
                               (Standard 2:  Recognize Significant Events, Figures and contributions of medieval civilizations:
Byzantine Empire, Western Europe, Japan)

Humanities           (Standard 1: Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts)
                                (Standard 2: Respond critically and aesthetically to various works in the arts)
                                (Standard 3: Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.W.2.1:  Locate the extent of Byzantine Territory and the height of the empire.
SS.912.W.2.2: Describe the impact of Constantine the Greats establishment of "New Rome" (
Constantinople) and his recognition of Christianity as a legal religion.
SS.912.W.2.3: Analyze the extent to which the
Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the old Roman Empire and in what ways it was a departure.  
SS.912.W.2.4: Identify key figures associated with the
Byzantine Empire.
SS.912.W.2.5: Explain the contributions of the Byzantine Empire.
SS.912.W.2.6: Describe the causes and effects of the Iconoclast controversy of the 8th and 9th centuries and the 11th century Christian schism between the churches of
Constantinople and Rome.
SS.912.W.2.7: Analyze causes (Justinian's Plague, ongoing attacks from the "barbarians," the Crusades, and internal political turmoil) of the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
SS.912.W.2.8: Describe the rise of the Ottoman Turks, the conquest of
Constantinople in 1453, and the subsequent growth of the Ottoman empire under the sultanate including Mehmet the Conquerer and Suleyman the Magnificent.  
SS.912.G.4.2: Use geographic terms and tools to analyze the push/pull factors contributing to human migration within and among places.
SS.912.H.3.1:  Analyze the effects of transportation, trade, communication, science, and technology on the preservation and diffusion of culture. 
SS.912.W.1.1:  Use timelines to establish cause and effect relationships of historical events.

Essential Content

·          Justinian and the Legacy of Rome (The fall of Rome), Constantine’s New Rome,  Contributions of the Empire

·          Religion and State, The Christian Church  and  the role of  the Iconoclasts, Iconoclastic Controversy,  The Schisms, The Growing Divide between the East and West Churches

·          Decline of the Byzantine  Empire, The Impact of the  Plague and the Arab Conquests  through  767, Germanic Peoples of  W. Europe, The Crusades,  The Seljuk Turks, The Ottoman Turks

Vocabulary

Schism, Crusades, Patriarch, Justinian, Saladin, Pope Innocent III, Icon, Iconoclast, Heresy, Excommunication, Mosaic, Justinian Code, Theodora, Greek Fire, Hagia Sophia, Ottoman Turks, Seljuk Turks, The Huns.

==> Please, watch the following videos (Free) <==
Online education as a visually stimulating, engaging, multi-media experience made specifically for the web user.

Free Videos on History

-YouTube:
Engineering an Empire: The Byzantines (History Channel) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEXSD-M6JvI
Turning Points in History: The Crusades: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgVDGdexXvY
The Crusades: Crescent and the Cross... History Channel, 2 parts... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FG7Oep4dk4c
History's Turning Points: Constantinople, 1453 (History Channel, 3 parts): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdiSrIW9Ai0

-Study.com:
Germanic Tribes: Invasion in Rome
Heirs of Rome: The Church and the Byzantines

Early Church Conflicts: Arianism and Iconoclasm

Roman Economy in the Dark Ages
Byzantine Art: Mosaics, History & Characteristics
Byzantine Architecture: History, Characteristics & Examples
Frankish History: Clovis and the Merovingians
Feudalism: Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and the Divine Right to Rule
Carolingian Art: History, Style & Characteristics
Carolingian Architecture: Style, Characteristics & Examples
History of the Vikings
The Slow Decline of the Byzantine Empire
The First Crusade: Causes and Effects
The Great Crusades: History and Timeline

Suleiman and the Ottoman Empire: History, Culture & Exploits

-Crash Course:
The Crusades - Pilgrimage or Holy War?:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0zudTQelzI

-Khan Academy History:
Charlemagne: An introduction (1 of 2): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/medieval/v/charlemagne-an-introduction
Charlemagne and the Carolingian revival (part 2 of 2): https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-medieval/medieval/v/charlemagne-and-the-carolingian-revival

-Annenberg:
The Byzantine Empire... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=833
The Fall of Byzantium... http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=834

Art History Free Videos:

-Khan Academy Art
Byzantine Art: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-1300-medieval---byzantine-eras/byzantine/v/tice-art-1010--medieval-and-byzantine-art-mp4

-Otis College Art History:
Early Christian Byzantine: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8KyFTY0YOtw
Carolingian and Ottonian Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bXhnhB6iP80

 

Vocabulary

Sassanid Empire (224–651): It was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its arch rival the Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years. At its greatest extent, the Sassanid Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, South Ossetia, Abkhazia), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia, Yemen and Pakistan.

Great Seljuk Empire: 1037–1194 (From the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf). The Great Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. From their homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg in 1037. The Seljuqs united the fractured political scene of the Eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized in culture and language the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition, even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia. The Seljuk rule gave impetus to the Turkification of Iran The Seljuks Turkified Azerbaijan between the 11th century and 12th century.

Sultan: It became the usual title of rulers of the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks.
10.1-Sultanate: Originally, it was an
Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", "dictatorship". Later, it came to be used as the title rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty over a territory, without claiming the overall caliphate, or it was used to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate.

The Ottoman Empire: 1453-1918 (End of Byzantine Empire to WW I): At the height of its power, in the 16th and 17th centuries, it controlled territory in southeastern Europe, southwestern Asia, and North Africa. With Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520 to 1566), the empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.

Germanic People: During the 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire lost military strength and political cohesion, numerous Germanic peoples, under pressure from population growth and invading Asian groups, began migrating en masse in far and diverse directions, taking them to Great Britain and far south through present day Continental Europe to the Mediterranean and northern Africa. Germanic peoples overwhelmed the Roman legions and created kingdoms based on their own traditions. In Denmark the Jutes merged with the Danes, in Sweden the Geats and Gutes merged with the Swedes. In England, the Angles merged with the Saxons and other groups (notably the Jutes), as well as absorbing some natives, to form the Anglo-Saxons (later to become known as the English). The Germanic tribes settled down by the Early Middle Ages, the latest series of movements out of Scandinavia taking place during the Viking Age. The Goths and Vandals were linguistically assimilated to their Latin (Romance) substrate populations. Burgundians and Lombards were assimilated into both Latin (French & Italian) and Germanic (German Swiss) populations. The Franks created the largest and most powerful kingdom: Clovis (466-511), the Merovingians (457-751), and the Carolingians (751-887): Charlemagne (747-814): Gaul, parts of Germany and Italy.

The Vikings or Norsemen: Sea riders and explorers from Scandinavia. Looking for booty and slaves during 800-900’s, they attacked England, France, etc. They settled Iceland and Greenland; also discovered North America. They settled in Normandy, Northern France. William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, ending Anglo-Saxon rule. Variagians, were Swedish Vikings, who went eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. Varangians (called Rus), led by Rurik, settled around the town of Novgorod during the 880’s, creating the first Kievan-Russian kingdom.

Justinian Dynasty (518-602): The Byzantine Empire had its first golden age under the Justinian Dynasty, which began in 518 AD with the Accession of Justin I. Under the Justinian Dynasty, the Empire reached its largest territorial point, reincorporating North Africa, southern Illyria, southern Spain, and Italy into the Empire. The Justinian Dynasty ended in 602 with the deposition of Maurice and the ascension of his successor, Phocas.

Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom):  Greek Orthodox patriarchal basilica (church), later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its construction in 537 until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. The building was a mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931. It was then secularized and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935. Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of architecture". It remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years. The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the previous two having both been destroyed by rioters. It was designed by the Greek scientists Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.

Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the