UNITS OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

1-Historical Foundations of the American Government.
2-Participating in Politics.
3-The Legislative Branch.
4-The Executive Branch.
5-The Judicial Branch.
6-State and Local Government.
7-The Political World Today.The Future of the American Government.


1-Historical Foundations of the American Government.

Objectives


1-Trace the major events leading to the establishment of the Constitution (II A).

2-Describe the various philosophies that influenced the development of the government of the U.S. (II A).

3-Review major documents which provided the foundations for the Constitution (II A).

4-Understand the historical origins of basic constitutional concepts (II A).

5-Provide examples of the way each branch of the national government checks and balances the powers granted to the other branches (II A).

6-Define the concept of Federalism (II C).

7-Analyze the strengths and weakness of the federal system of government (II C).

8-Identify the powers granted and denied to the national and state governments (II C).

9-Evaluate the structure and function of government at all levels in American political life (II C).

10-Explain the concept of majority rule with protection of individual and minority rights (III B).

11-Analyze freedoms granted in the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments to all citizens regardless of race, religion, and origin (III B).

12-Define government as a universal institution and describe its major functions (VI A).

13-Differentiate among the major forms of government in the world today (VI A).

14-Compare the structure and functions of American democracy with other forms of government (VI A).

15-Assess the spread and effects of democratic principles from the ancient Greece to the present days (VI A).


VOCABULARY

1-GOVERNMENT: THE INSTITUTION THROUGH WHICH A SOCIETY MAKES AND ENFORCES ITS PUBLIC POLICIES.

2-PUBLIC POLICES: ALL THOSE THINGS A GOVERNMENT DECIDES TO DO, SUCH AS IMPOSING TAXES, SETTING A MINIMUM WAGE, MAINTAINING ARMED FORCES, PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ETC.

3-STATE: A BODY OF PEOPLE, LIVING IN A DEFINED TERRITORY, ORGANIZED POLITICALLY, AND HAVING THE POWER TO MAKE AND ENFORCE THE LAW.

4-SOVEREIGN: THE ABSOLUTE POWER A STATE HAS WITHIN ITS TERRITORY TO DECIDE ITS DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICIES.

5-CONFEDERATION: AN ALLIANCE OF INDEPENDENT STATES.

6-PARLIAMENT: COUNCIL, LEGISLATURE, CONGRESS. A REPRESENTATIVE BODY OF GOVERNMENT WITH THE POWER TO MAKE / APPROVE THE LAWS.

7-DICTATORSHIP: A GOVERNMENT THAT DOES NOT REPRESENT THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE AND USES SOME KIND OF REPRESSIVE METHODS TO RULE. TOTALITARIAN / AUTHORITARIAN POWER.

8-DEMOCRACY: A GOVERNMENT IN WHICH THE SUPREME AUTHORITY RESTS WITH THE PEOPLE.

9-COMPROMISE: THE PROCESS OF BLENDING AND ADJUSTING, OF RECONCILING COMPETING VIEWS AND INTERESTS.

10-ANARCHY: IT IS THE ABSENCE OF GOVERNMENT.

11-CHARTER: A WRITTEN GRANT OF AUTHORITY (KING, POPE).

12-UNICAMERAL / BICAMERAL: ONE / TWO HOUSE LEGISLATURE.

13-BOYCOTT: A REFUSAL TO BUY OR SELL GOODS TO SOME OTHER NATION / COMPANY.

14-CONSTITUTION: BODY OF FUNDAMENTAL LAWS SETTING OUT THE PRINCIPLES, STRUCTURES, AND PROCESSES OF THE GOVERNMENT.

15-RATIFICATION: FORMAL APPROVAL.

16-FRAMERS: THE GROUP OF OUTSTANDING PERSONALITIES WHO ELABORATED THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION (WASHINGTON, MADISON, BEN FRANKLIN, HAMILTON, ETC.)

17-FEDERALISTS / ANTI-FEDERALISTS: IN FAVOR / AGAINST THE RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION.

18-LIMITED GOVERNMENT: THE GOV. IS NOT ALL-POWERFUL. IT ONLY MAY DO THE PEOPLE’S WILL.

19-CONSTITUTIONALISM: THE GOV. MUST BE CONDUCTED ACCORDING TO CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES.

20-RULE OF LAW: GOVERNMENT AND ITS OFFICERS ARE SUBJECT TO THE LAW, NEVER ABOVE IT.

21-AMENDMENT: CHANGE.

22-GRANTS-IN-AID: FEDERAL MONEY ASSIGNED TO THE STATES FOR CARRY OUT SOME SPECIFIC PROGRAMS (CATEGORICAL GRANTS).

23-BLOCK GRANTS: FEDERAL MONEY ASSIGNED TO THE STATES WITH MORE BROADLY DEFINED PURPOSES AND FEWER STRINGS ATTACHED.

24-INTERSTATE COMPACTS: AGREEMENTS AMONG THE STATES.

25-FULL FAITH AND CREDIT: EACH STATE MUST RESPECT THE PUBLIC ACTS, RECORDS, AND JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS OF EVERY OTHER STATE (BIRTH CERTIFICATES, DEEDS OF PROPERTY, CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS, DIVORCES, ETC.).

26-EXTRADITION: A LEGAL PROCESS IN WHICH A FUGITIVE FROM JUSTICE IN A STATE IS RETURNED TO THAT STATE FROM ANOTHER.

 

THE ORIGIN OF THE STATE

1-THE FORCE THEORY: One person or group claimed control over an area and forced all within it to submit to his / their rule.

2-THE EVOLUTIONARY THEORY: The state developed naturally out of the early family (the family head), which became a clan, a tribe, a nation.

3-THE DIVINE RIGHT THEORY: The state was created by God and He gave the “divine right” to rule to those of royal birth. The people must obey their rulers as they obey God.

4-THE SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY: In earliest history humans lived in a “state of nature”, no government existed. Later, people agreed to create a state to protect themselves from violence, attacks from other groups, etc. By contract, people in a territory agreed to give up to the state as much power as was needed to promote the well-being of all. This theory argues that the state exists only to serve the will and needs of the people.

 

THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT (The Preamble to the Constitution)

1-TO FORM A MORE PERFECT UNION

2-TO ESTABLISH JUSTICE

3-TO INSURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY

4-TO PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE

5-TO PROMOTE THE GENERAL WELFARE

6-TO SECURE THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY

BASIC CONCEPTS OF DEMOCRACY

1-A RECOGNITION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL WORTH AND DIGNITY OF EVERY PERSON.

2-A RESPECT FOR THE EQUALITY OF ALL PERSONS.

3-A FAITH IN MAJORITY RULE AND AN INSISTENCE UPON MINORITY RIGHTS.

4-AN ACCEPTANCE OF THE NECESSITY OF COMPROMISE.

5-AN INSISTENCE UPON THE WIDEST POSSIBLE DEGREE OF INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM.

6-A CERTAIN MINIMUM LEVEL OF ECONOMIC SECURITY, HEALTH, AND EDUCATION FOR THE PEOPLE.

 

LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS

1-THE MAGNA CARTA: Trial by jury, due process of law, protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, and property.

2-THE PETITION OF RIGHT: Not imprison political critics, not declare martial law during peacetime, not force people to pay taxes without common consent by act of the parliament.

3-THE BILL OF RIGHTS: Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, required that parliament elections must be free, established that the king can not suspend the laws, declared freedom from excessive bail and cruel punishment.

 

LANDMARK AMERICAN DOCUMENTS

1-THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT

2-THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

3-THE ARTICLES OF THE CONFEDERATION

4-THE CONSTITUTION

 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

1-THE VIRGINIA PLAN

2-THE NEW JERSEY PLAN

3-THE CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE

4-THE 3/5 COMPROMISE

5-THE SLAVE TRADE COMPROMISE (20 YEARS).

 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOURCES OF THE CONSTITUTION

1-MONTESQUIEU’S THE SPIRIT OF THE LAWS: Separation of Powers

2-ROUSSEAU’S SOCIAL CONTRACT: Limited Government, Popular Sovereignty.

3-JOHN LOCKE’S TWO TREATIES OF GOVERNMENT: People’s Rights.

4-ADAM SMITH: FOUNDATIONS OF CAPITALISM.

 

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION (1789)

1-FEDERALISTS vs.  ANTI-FEDERALISTS

2-THE BILL OF RIGHTS

 

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION

1-POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY

2-LIMITED GOVERNMENT (CONSTITUTIONALISM & RULE OF THE LAW)

3-SEPARATION OF POWERS (EXECUTIVE, LEGISLATIVE, JUDICIAL)

4-CHECKS AND BALANCES

5-FEDERALISM (FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT)

6-JUDICIAL REVIEW (Marbury vs. Madison 1803)

 

AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

1-THE FORMAL PROCESS: Changes or additions that become part of the written language of the constitution.

Proposed by Congress (2/3) & Ratified by the State Legislatures (3/4).

Proposed by Congress (2/3) & Ratified at State Conventions (3/4).

Proposed at a National Convention & Ratified by the State Legislatures (3/4).

Proposed at a National Convention & Ratified at State Conventions (3/4)

(See the subjects of the 27 current amendments.)

2-THE INFORMAL PROCESS: Changes that have been made without modifying the text of the Constitution as a result of the day-to-day experiences of government.

The passage of basic legislation by Congress (Spell out the brief provisions, define the meaning of some statements).

Actions taken by the President (Not declared wars, executive agreements vs. formal treaties.

Decisions of the Supreme Court (Interpretation of the text).

Activities of political parties (Electoral vs. Popular vote to elect the President).

Custom (The Cabinet as an advisory body, the non-third-term tradition).

 

THE POWERS OF THE FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS

1-DELEGATED POWERS: THE POWERS GRANTED IN THE CONSTITUTION TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.

EXPRESSED POWERS: SPELLED OUT EXPRESSLY IN THE CONSTITUTION

IMPLIED POWERS: THOSE THAT ARE NOT EXPRESSLY STATED BUT ARE REASONABLE IMPLIED BY THOSE POWERS THAT ARE (REGULATE INTERSTATE COMMERCE: BUILD HYDROELECTRIC POWER DAMS, KIDNAPPED PERSONS ACROSS STATE LINES, PROHIBIT RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC PLACES).

INHERENT POWERS: THOSE THAT NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN THE WORLD HAVE HISTORICALLY POSSESSED (REGULATE IMMIGRATION, ACQUIRE NEW TERRITORIES, GIVE DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION).

 

2-RESERVED POWERS: THE POWERS RESERVED IN THE CONSTITUTION TO THE STATES (MARRIAGE LAWS, EDUCATION, PROFESSIONAL LICENSES).

 

3-POWERS DENIED TO THE NATIONAL, STATE, AND BOTH LEVEL OF GOVERNMENTS: LEVY DUTIES ON EXPORTS, CREATE A PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM / CONDUCT ILLEGAL SEARCHES, SIGN TREATIES WITH FOREIGN COUNTRIES, COIN OR PRINT MONEY / DENY FREEDOM OF RELIGION, SPEECH, AND PRESS.

 

4-EXCLUSIVE POWERS: ONLY CAN BE EXERCISED BY THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.

 

5-CONCURRENT POWERS: THE POWERS THAT BOTH THE NATIONAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS POSSESS AND EXERCISE (LAY AND COLLECT TAXES, CONSTRUCT ROADS).

 

THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND: THE CONSTITUTION AND THE FEDERAL LAWS.

OBLIGATIONS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WITH THE STATES

1-GUARANTEE A REPRESENTATIVE AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT.

2-PROTECTION AGAINST FOREIGN INVASION AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

3-RESPECT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY (STATES’ BOUNDARIES).

4-REGULATE AND ADMIT NEW STATES: ENABLING ACT (CONGRESS DIRECTS THE FRAMING OF A STATE CONSTITUTION AND THE APPROVAL OF IT), ACT OF ADMISSION, AND PRESIDENT SIGNATURE.

5-GENERAL HELP TO THE STATES: GRANTS-IN-AID PROGRAMS, BLOCK GRANTS, REVENUE SHARING, FEDERAL AGENCIES SUPPORT (FBI, SHARE CENSUS’ INFORMATION), ETC.

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

1-UNITARY GOVERNMENT: A CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ALL POWERS BELONG TO THE CORE OR CENTRAL AUTHORITY. LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT ONLY EXIST TO FACILITATE THE RULE OF THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY (MOST OF TODAY NATIONS).

2-FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT ARE DIVIDED BETWEEN THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (U.S.).

3-CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT: THE CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT HAS THE POWER TO HANDLE ONLY THOSE MATTERS THAT THE INDEPENDENT-MEMBER STATES HAVE ASSIGNED TO IT: DEFENSE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE. THE STATES COOPERATE IN SOME MATTERS OF COMMON CONCERN BUT RETAIN THEIR SEPARATE IDENTITIES (THE U.S. BEFORE THE CONSTITUTION, THE SOVIET UNION AFTER 1991).

4-PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT: A GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXISTS A SEPARATION OF POWERS BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF THE GOVERNMENT. THE ARE INDEPENDENT AND COEQUAL. (U.S.)

5-PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT: THE EXECUTIVE POWER IS MADE UP OF THE LEGISLATIVE. THE PRIME MINISTER / PREMIER IS THE LEADER OF THE MAJORITY PARTY IN PARLIAMENT, THE MEMBERS OF THE CABINET ARE MEMBERS OF THE PARLIAMENT. THE EXECUTIVE IS PART AND IS SUBJECT TO THE CONTROL OF THE LEGISLATURE.

6-DICTATORSHIP

7-DEMOCRACY

a-DIRECT DEMOCRACY OR PURE DEMOCRACY: THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE IS TRANSLATED INTO PUBLIC POLICY DIRECTLY, IN MASS MEETINGS (SMALL TOWNS IN NEW ENGLAND & SWISS CANTONS).

b-REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: A SMALL GROUP OF PERSONS CHOSEN BY THE PEOPLE ACT AS THEIR REPRESENTATIVES AND EXPRESS THE POPULAR WILL CONDUCTING THE DAY-TO-DAY MATTERS OF GOVERNMENT.

8-MONARCHY vs. REPUBLIC: KING AND SUBJECTS (DIVINE RIGHTS) vs. PRESIDENT AND CITIZENS (ELECTORAL SYSTEM).


THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM

1-The Constitution. The Bill of Rights.

2-The Government:

-Branches: Executive, Legislative, Judicial

-Levels: Federal  / State / Local

3-Principles: Federalism, Separation of Powers, Checks & Balances

4-Political Parties: Democratic,  Republican, Others

5-News Media

6-Public Opinion (Polls/Surveys) & Elections (Campaigns/PAC’s/Money/Media).

7-INTEREST GROUPS: Iron Triangles, PAC’s, Lobbying

a-Businesses, Trade/Ind. Assoc. (Tobacco, Oil, Banks, Automakers, Insurance, Health Care, Tourism, Military, Aeronautic/Space), Chambers of Comm.

b-Labor Unions (AFL-CIO)

c-Professional (American Medical Assoc., American Bar Assoc., American Assoc. of Univ. Professors).

d-Public Interest (League of Women, Common Cause)

e-Citizen Groups (Single Issues (Pro-Life/Pro-Choice, Environment, Gays, Elders, Nat. Rifle Assoc., Mothers vs. Drunk Driving)

f-Ideological (Christian Moral Fund, American for Democratic Action, NAACP, Supremacists: KKK, Skinheads, Militias.)

g-Government Groups: Federal (Special Agencies), Sub-national (State Governors, League of Cities, Mayors), Foreign (Embassies, Corporations, etc.)

2-Participating in Politics.

Objectives

1-Map the state primaries in presidential elections (I A).

2-Explain the election process at the national, state, and local levels (I A).

3-Identify major political divisions of the U.S. (I A).

4-Explain the relationship between a nation’s political system and its political culture (II D).

5-Describe the basic structure and functions of political parties in the U.S. (II D).

6-Describe a significant third party movement in American history and assess the reasons for its eventual demise (II D).

7-Describe the role of political parties in the democratic process (II D).

8-Examine the democratic and undemocratic aspects of the electoral process (II D).

9-Discuss ways by which citizens exercise their political rights (III B).

10-Examine the role of a free press in a democratic society (III B).

11-Analyze the effectiveness of interest groups on government policy (V A).

12-Recognize that American society is and has always been pluralistic and multicultural (V A).

13-Describe the types of pressure groups that impact foreign policy (VI A).

14-Compare and contrast the U.S. and other nations media’s coverage of selected events and issues (VI B).

 

VOCABULARY

1-POLITICAL PARTY: A GROUP OF PERSONS WHO SEEK TO CONTROL GOVERNMENT THROUGH THE WINNING OF ELECTIONS AND THE HOLDING OF PUBLIC OFFICE.

2-MAJOR PARTIES: THE DOMINANT POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE U.S. (Democratic & Republican)

3-COALITION: - A UNION OF MANY PERSONS OF DIFFERENT INTERESTS WHO HAVE JOINED TOGETHER TO TRY TO GET CANDIDATES ELECTED TO PUBLIC OFFICE.

- AN ALLIANCE OF DIFFERENT PARTIES / POLITICAL GROUPS TO BECOME STRONGER AND WIN / OBTAIN BETTER RESULTS IN THE ELECTIONS.

4-MINOR PARTY: ONE OF THE LESS WIDELY SUPPORTED PARTIES IN THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM.

5-TWO-PARTY SYSTEM: ONLY THE MAJOR PARTY’S CANDIDATES HAVE A REASONABLE CHANCE OF WINNING THE ELECTIONS.

6-SINGLE-MEMBER DISTRICT: ONLY ONE CANDIDATE FROM THE DISTRICT IS ELECTED TO EACH STATE OR FEDERAL OFFICE ON THE BALLOT. IT IS ALL OR NOTHING. PARTIES DO NOT SHARE THE SEATS ACCORDING TO THE # OF VOTES EACH ONE GOT.

7-PLURALITY: TO WIN, CANDIDATES ONLY NEED THE LARGEST NUMBER OF VOTES CAST FOR THE OFFICE, NOT THE MAJORITY (51%).

8-PLURARISTIC SOCIETY: A SOCIETY CONSISTING OF SEVERAL DISTINCT CULTURES, RELIGIOUS, ETHNIC AND RACIAL AND GROUPS.

9-CONSENSUS: A GENERAL AGREEMENT AMONG VARIOUS GROUPS.

10-MULTIPARTY SYSTEM: ONE IN WHICH SEVERAL MAJOR AND LESSER PARTIES EXIST.

11-ONE-PARTY SYSTEM: DICTATORSHIP. THIS IS REALLY A “NO-PARTY” SYSTEM.

12-ELECTORATE: THE PEOPLE ELIGIBLE TO VOTE.

13-IDEOLOGICAL PARTIES: THOSE BASED ON A PARTICULAR SET OF BELIEFS, A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL MATTERS.

14-SINGLE-ISSUE PARTIES: THOSE CONCENTRATING ON A SINGLE PUBLIC POLICY MATTER.

15-ECONOMIC PROTEST PARTIES: THOSE ROOTED IN PERIODS OF CRISIS OR DISCONTENT AND FOCUSED ON PARTICULAR ENEMIES (MONETARY SYSTEM, RAILROADS, WALL STREET, IMPORTS, ETC.).

16-SPLINTER PARTIES: THOSE WHICH HAVE SPLIT AWAY FROM ONE OF THE MAJOR PARTIES AND HAVE FORMED AROUND SOME STRONG PERSONALITY WHO FAILED TO WIN HIS FORMER MAJOR PARTY’S PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION (PROGRESSIVE PARTIES / THEODORE ROOSEVELT (1912), GEORGE WALLACE (1968)).

17-WARD: IT IS A UNIT INTO WHICH A CITY IS DIVIDED FOR THE ELECTION OF ITS COUNCIL MEMBERS. (DISTRICT - CONFUSION WITH STATE & FEDERAL ELECTIONS).

18-PRECINCT: IT IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF ELECTION ADMINISTRATION. VOTERS OF EACH PRECINCT (BETWEEN 500-1000) REPORT TO ONE POLLING PLACE (WHERE VOTERS VOTE). A BOARD SUPERVISE THE PROCESS. ONE POLL WATCHER FROM EACH PARTY IS ALSO ALLOWED.

19-STRAIGHT-TICKET VOTING: THE PRACTICE OF VOTING FOR ALL THE CANDIDATES FOR ALL THE OPEN OFFICES FROM BUT ONE PARTY.

20-SPLIT-TICKET VOTING: THE PEOPLE VOTE FOR CANDIDATES OF BOTH PARTIES OR DIFFERENT OFFICES AT THE SAME ELECTION (CANDIDATE NAMES vs. PARTY LOYALTY).

21-SUFFRAGE / FRANCHISE: THE RIGHT TO VOTE.

22-REGISTRATION: IT IS THE PROCEDURE OF VOTER IDENTIFICATION INTENDED TO PREVENT FRAUDULENT VOTING.

23-POLL TAX: TAX PAYMENT REQUIRED TO VOTE (AGAINST BLACKS). SEE THE LITERACY TESTS & THE GRANDFATHER CLAUSE. THE 24th. AMENDMENT (1964) OUTLAWED THIS TAX.

24-GERRYMANDERING: THE PRACTICE OF DRAWING THE LINES OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS IN ORDER TO LIMIT / INCREASE THE VOTING STRENGTH OF A PARTICULAR GROUP OR PARTY (THIS WAS OUTLAWED BY THE SUPREME COURT IN 1960).

25-INJUNCTION: FEDERAL COURT ORDER.

26-POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION: THE PROCESS BY WHICH PEOPLE GAIN THEIR POLITICAL ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS.

27-PARTY IDENTIFICATION: THE LOYALTY OF PEOPLE TO A POLITICAL PARTY.

28-INDEPENDENTS: PEOPLE WITH NO “OFFICIAL” PARTY AFFILIATION. NO PARTICIPATION IN A CLOSED PRIMARY.

29-CAUCUS: A GROUP OF LIKE-MINDED PERSONS WHO MEET TO SELECT THE CANDIDATES THEY WILL SUPPORT IN AN UPCOMING ELECTION, TO LOBBY FOR THE APPROVAL OF LAWS THAT FAVOR THE GROUP’S INTERESTS, AND TO ACT AS A BLOCK IN CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES, DEBATES, ETC.

30-GENERAL ELECTIONS: REGULARLY SCHEDULED ELECTIONS AT WHICH VOTERS MAKE THE FINAL SELECTION OF OFFICEHOLDERS.

31-DIRECT PRIMARY: THIS IS AN ELECTION HELD WITHIN THE PARTY TO PICK THE PARTY’S CANDIDATES FOR THE GENERAL ELECTION. THIS CAN BE CLOSED, OPEN, OR BLANKET.

32-CLOSED PRIMARY: A PARTY NOMINATING ELECTION IN WHICH ONLY PREVIOUSLY REGISTERED PARTY MEMBERS CAN VOTE.

33-OPEN PRIMARY: A PARTY NOMINATING ELECTION IN WHICH ANY QUALIFIED VOTER CAN TAKE PART. VOTERS DECIDE AT THE POLLING PLACE IN WHICH PARTY PRIMARY THEY WISH TO VOTE.

34-BLANKET PRIMARY: A WIDE-OPEN PRIMARY ELECTION. VOTERS CAN NOMINATE CANDIDATES FROM DIFFERENT PARTIES (A REP. FOR ONE OFFICE, A DEM. FOR ANOTHER OFFICE, AND SO ON).

35-RUNOFF PRIMARY: IN THE STATES WHERE A MAJORITY (51%) IS REQUIRED TO WIN A PRIMARY, WHEN NO ONE WINS IN THE FIRST PRIMARY, THE TWO TOP VOTE-GETTERS RACE AGAIN IN A RUNOFF PRIMARY.

36-NON-PARTISAN PRIMARY: AN ELECTION IN WHICH CANDIDATES ARE NOMINATED ON A PERSONAL AND NONPARTISAN BASIS. LATER, HE / SHE RUNS UNOPPOSED IN THE GENERAL ELECTION SUBJECT ONLY TO WRITE-IN OPPOSITION (MANY DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD AND STATE JUDGES).

37-COATTAIL EFFECT: A STRONG CANDIDATE RUNNING FOR AN OFFICE INFLUENCES VOTERS TO SUPPORT OTHER LESS KNOWN CANDIDATES FROM THE SAME PARTY RUNNING FOR OTHER OFFICES.

38-BALLOT: THE DEVICE BY WHICH A VOTER REGISTERS HIS / HER CHOICE IN AN ELECTION. THE WAY VOTERS CAST THEIR BALLOTS IS SECRET. SAMPLE BALLOTS ARE AVAILABLE PRIOR TO AN ELECTION.

39-POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE (PAC’s): THE POLITICAL ARMS OF SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS (CAMPAIGN FUNDING).

40-PUBLIC OPINION: THOSE ATTITUDES HELD BY A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PERSONS ON MATTERS OF GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.

41-CONSTITUENCY: THE PEOPLE THAT ELECTED A PUBLIC OFFICIAL.

42-MANDATE: INSTRUCTIONS OR COMMANDS A CONSTITUENCY GIVES TO ITS ELECTED OFFICIALS.

43-PUBLIC OPINION POLL: A DEVICE THAT ATTEMPTS TO COLLECT INFORMATION ABOUT PUBLIC OPINION.

44-STRAW VOTE: A TYPE OF POLL THAT SEEKS TO READ THE PUBLIC’S MIND SIMPLY BY ASKING TO MANY PEOPLE THE SAME QUESTION.

45-SAMPLE: A REPRESENTATIVE SLICE OF THE TOTAL UNIVERSE USED FOR A POLL.

46-RANDOM SAMPLE: A SAMPLE IN WHICH EACH MEMBER OF THE UNIVERSE AND EACH AREA / REGION WITHIN HAVE A MATHEMATICALLY EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING INCLUDED WITHIN THE SAMPLE.

47-QUOTA SAMPLE: A SAMPLE DELIBERATELY CONSTRUCTED TO REFLECT SEVERAL OF THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UNIVERSE (GENDER, RACE, AGE, OCCUPATION).

48-MEDIUM / MASS MEDIA: THOSE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION THAT CAN REACH LARGE, WIDELY DISPERSED AUDIENCES OR MASSES OF PEOPLE SIMULTANEOUSLY.

49-SOUND BITES: SNAPPY REPORTS THAT CAN BE AIRED IN 30 -45 SECONDS SPACES TO IMPROVE PEOPLE’S OPINION ABOUT A POLITICAL CANDIDATE.

50-INTEREST GROUP: A PRIVATE ORGANIZATION THAT TRIES TO PERSUADE PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO SUPPORT THE GROUP’S INTERESTS.

51-PUBLIC POLICY: ALL THOSE THINGS THAT A GOVERNMENT ATTEMPT TO DO IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE CERTAIN GOALS.

52-PUBLIC AFFAIRS: THOSE EVENTS AND ISSUES THAT CONCERN THE PEOPLE AT LARGE.

53-PROPAGANDA: A TECHNIQUE OF PERSUASION AIMED AT INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP BEHAVIORS, CREATING A PARTICULAR POPULAR BELIEF (TRUE OR FALSE).

54-LOBBYING: THOSE ACTIVITIES BY WHICH INTEREST GROUPS TRY TO PRESSURE LEGISLATORS (MONEY, VOTES, CERTAIN PRIVILEGES) TO SUPPORT THEIR INTERESTS.

55-CANDIDATE-CENTERED vs. PARTY-CENTERED POLITICS.

56-INCUMBENT: ELECTED PUBLIC OFFICIAL.

 

MAIN IDEAS IN THIS UNIT

1-AMERICANS’ POLITICAL OPINIONS ARE SHAPED BY SEVERAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE: IDEOLOGY, GROUP ATTACHMENTS, PARTISANSHIP, AND POLITICAL CULTURE.

2-THE AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE CENTERS ON A SET OF CORE IDEALS: LIBERTY, EQUALITY, SELF-GOVERNMENT, INDIVIDUALISM, DIVERSITY, AND UNITY.

3-PUBLIC OPINION HAS AN IMPORTANT INFLUENCE ON GOVERNMENT BUT ORDINARILY DOES NOT DIRECTLY DETERMINE WHAT OFFICIALS WILL DO.

4-POLITICS IN THE U.S. IS CHARACTERIZED BY SEVERAL PATTERNS: HIGHLY FRAGMENTED GOVERNING SYSTEM, HIGH DEGREE OF PLURALISM, EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, SEPARATION OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SPHERES.

5-VOTER TURNOUT IN U.S. ELECTIONS IS LOW. MOST CITIZENS DO NOT PARTICIPATE ACTIVELY IN POLITICS. MOST AMERICANS MAKE A SHARP DISTINCTION BETWEEN THEIR PERSONAL LIVES AND NATIONAL LIFE.

6-PARTY COMPETITION IS THE MECHANISM THAT PROVIDES THE MEANS FOR VOTING MAJORITIES TO PARTICIPATE AND INFLUENCE ON THE DIRECTION OF GOVERNMENT.

7-THE REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC COALITIONS ARE VERY BROAD. THEY NORMALLY ADVOCATE FOR MODERATE AND SOMEWHAT OVERLAPPING POLICIES.

8-ALTHOUGH NEARLY ALL INTERESTS IN AMERICAN SOCIETY ARE ORGANIZED TO SOME DEGREE, THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ARE BY FAR THE MOST ORGANIZED AND INFLUENTIAL. LOBBYING IS THE TRADITIONAL MEAN USED TO INFLUENCE POLITICAL LEADERS. THE OVERREPRESENTED INFLUENCE OF BUSINESS AND HIGHER-INCOME GROUPS’ INTERESTS ON THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT POLICIES DISTORTS THE AMERICAN DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM.

9-FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND THE EXISTENCE OF THOUSANDS OF SEPARATE NEWS ORGANIZATIONS DOES NOT RESULT IN A ROBUST MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS. THEY PRESENT A COMMON VERSION OF THE NEWS.

10-THE NEWS MEDIA PERFORM 3 SIGNIFICANT ROLES: SIGNALER (BRINGING RELEVANT ISSUES INTO PUBLIC VIEW), COMMON CARRIER (BEING A CHANNEL THROUGH WHICH POLITICAL LEADERS CAN ADDRESS THE PUBLIC), AND WATCHDOG (SCRUTINIZING THE OFFICIAL BEHAVIOR FOR EVIDENCE OF DECEITFUL, CARELESS, OR CORRUPT ACTS).

 

MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES

1-NOMINATE AND SUPPORT CANDIDATES FOR RUNNING FOR PUBLIC OFFICE

2-INFORM PEOPLE AND STIMULATE THEIR INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

3-GRANT “SEALS OF APPROVAL” TO ITS CANDIDATES. ENSURE THAT THEY HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS, CHARACTER, AND THEREFORE, THEY WILL HAVE A GOOD PERFORMANCE IN OFFICE.

4-PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR THE ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCTION OF GOVERNMENT.

5-ACT AS WATCHDOGS OVER THE CONDUCT OF THE PUBLIC’S BUSINESS. CRITICIZE THE WRONG POLICES AND BEHAVIOR OF THE PARTY IN POWER.

 

REASONS FOR THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM    (SEE ALSO PARTY STRENGTH)

1-THE HISTORICAL BASIS: FEDERALISTS vs. ANTI-FEDERALISTS.

2-THE FORCE OF TRADITION: IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN THIS WAY.

3-THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM TENDS TO PROMOTE THIS (SINGLE-MEMBER DISTRICT, PLURALITY).

THE ERAS OF ONE-PARTY DOMINATION

1800-1860: THE DEMOCRATS WON 13 OF THE 15 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. JEFFERSON AND JACKSON. ECONOMIC EXPANSION. GOING WEST: OPPORTUNITIES FOR EVERYONE.

1860-1932: THE REPUBLICANS WON 14 OF 18 ELECTIONS. THE CIVIL WAR. LINCOLN’S LEGACY: INDUSTRY AND FINANCIAL INTERESTS. DEMOCRATS SURVIVED ONLY BECAUSE THE “SOLID SOUTH”. IMPERIAL POLICIES: McKinley & TEDDY ROOSEVELT.

1932-1968: THE DEMOCRATS WON 7 OF THE 9 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. THE GREAT DEPRESSION, THE WW II. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. THE POOR AND THE MIDDLE CLASS’ INTERESTS.

1968-2008: THE REPUBLICANS WON 7 OF THE 9 SEVEN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. THE COLD WAR. THE FALL OF COMMUNISM. DEMOCRATS CONTROLLED THE CONGRESS. REAGAN: NEW FEDERALISM, HOPE & PRIDE. BUSH, Jr.: WAR AGAINST TERRORISM. THE WORST EVER?

2008-????: A NEW DEMOCRATIC ERA?

MINOR PARTIES (Role of critic and innovator, call for attention on special issues)

1-IDEOLOGICAL PARTIES

2-SINGLE-ISSUE PARTIES

3-ECONOMIC PROTEST PARTIES

4-SPLINTER PARTIES

Also Check: Democratic Party & Republican Party

NATIONAL PARTY “POLITICAL MACHINERY”

1-THE NATIONAL CONVENTION: The party’s national voice. It nominates the party’s candidates for the White House.

2-THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE: It handle the party’s affairs between conventions. In presidential election years, the attention of the committee is focused on the organization of the national convention and the campaign.

3-THE NATIONAL CHAIRPERSON: He / she heads up the national committee during the 4 years between conventions.

4-THE CONGRESSIONAL CAMPAIGN COMMITTEES: They work to reelect incumbents, to save the seats given up by retiring party members, and to unseat incumbents in the other party in those races where there are chances for success.

 

FACTORS WHICH ARE WEAKENING THE ROLE OF THE TRADITIONAL PARTY “POLITICAL MACHINE”.

1-GROWING NUMBER OF “INDEPENDENT” VOTERS.

2-TREND IN FAVOR OF CANDIDATE-CENTERED POLITICS.

3-INCREASING SPLIT-TICKET VOTING.

4-INTERNAL PARTY CONFLICTS AND DISORGANIZATION.

5-THE HEAVY USE OF TELEVISION, PROFESSIONAL CAMPAIGN MANAGERS, DIRECT-MAIL ADVERTISING, POLLS.

6-THE GROWTH OF SINGLE-ISSUE ORGANIZATIONS THAT TAKE SIDES AND RAISE MONEY FOR THE CANDIDATES THAT SUPPORT THEIR INTERESTS (PACs).

 

STAGES IN THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN VOTING RIGHTS

1789: WHITE MALE PROPERTY OWNERS.

1850: ALL WHITE ADULT MALES.

1870: THE 15th. AMENDMENT: THE RIGHT TO VOTE TO ALL CITIZENS OVER 21 YEARS OLD. (PROTECT BLACK AMERICANS). JIM CROW LAWS. THE KKK.

1920: THE 19th. AMENDMENT: EQUAL SUFFRAGE-SEX (GIVE WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE).

1961: THE 23rd. AMENDMENT: THE RIGHT TO VOTE IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS FOR VOTERS OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

1964: THE 24th. AMENDMENT: ELIMINATED THE POLL TAX.

1965/70: THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT: RACIAL EQUALITY. IT ABOLISHED THE LITERACY TESTS.

1971: THE 26th. AMENDMENT: SET THE MINIMUM AGE TO VOTE AT 18.

REQUIREMENTS TO VOTE

1-CITIZENSHIP

2-RESIDENCE (Required time vary in the states)

3-AGE (18)

4-REGISTRATION (Avoid fraud).

 

“CANNOT-VOTERS”:

1-PEOPLE IN MENTAL INSTITUTIONS (500,000)

2-PEOPLE IN JAILS AND PRISONS (1 MILLION)

3-PEOPLE DISHONORABLY DISMISSED FROM THE ARMED FORCES, HOMELESS, AND POLYGAMISTS (ONLY IN SOME STATES).

4-RESIDENT ALIENS (6 MILLIONS)

5-PHYSICALLY DISABLED (5-6 MILLIONS)

6-PEOPLE TRAVELING OR LIVING ABROAD (2-3 MILLIONS)

7-PEOPLE WITH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS THAT PROHIBIT THEM TO VOTE (100, 000).

 

OTHER REASONS AFFECTING TURNOUT:

1-LACK OF INTEREST, INDIFFERENCE, AND APATHY.

2-DISTRUST POLITICS AND POLITICIANS

3-ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS: OCCUPATION AND INCOME, EDUCATION, GENDER AND AGE, ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND.

4-ELECTION DAY IS A REGULAR WORKING DAY

CAMPAIGN FUNDING

1-SMALL CONTRIBUTORS ($5 / $10): ONLY 10% OF ALL VOTERS.

2-THE “FAT CATS” (LARGE DONATIONS): PERSONAL INTERESTS. APPOINTMENTS TO PUBLIC OFFICE, SOCIAL RECOGNITION.

3-CANDIDATES THEMSELVES & FAMILY.

4-POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEES (PAC’s): INTEREST GROUPS (BIG BUSINESS). FAVORABLE LEGISLATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS.

5-TEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS.

6-POLITICAL PARTIES.

 

REGULATIONS ON FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FINANCING (NO STATE OR LOCAL)

THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION (1974). THE FEDERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN ACT (F.E.C.A.): 1971 & AMENDMENTS: 1974, 1976.

 

1-Cash gifts of more than $100 are prohibited.

2-Contributions from any foreign source are prohibited.

3-All political ads must carry the name of the sponsors.

4-All contributions must be made through a single campaign committee.

5-Any contribution of more than $200 must be identified by source and date.

6-Any contribution of more than $5,000 must be reported to the F.E.C..

7-No PAC may give more than $5,000 to any candidate. But there is not limit on PAC giving to different candidates or in the number of different PAC’s giving to one candidate.

8-No person can give more than $1,000 to any candidate in a primary election and no more than $1,000 in a general election.

9-No person can give more than $5,000 in a year to a PAC.

10-No person can give more than $20,000 in a year to a National Party Committee.

11-The total contributions of a person to federal candidates and committees in any one year are limited to no more than $25,000.

12-No major party contender accepting federal subsidies can spend more than $27,6 millions in the pre-convention period.

13-The major party’s national committees can spend on more than $10,3 millions in the presidential campaigns.

 

FACTORS THAT SHAPE PUBLIC OPINION

1-FAMILY

2-SCHOOLS

3-OPINION LEADERS

4-MASS MEDIA

 

MAJOR POLITICAL / IDEOLOGICAL POSITIONS

 

1-RADICAL / POPULIST: Favor activist government as a means of promoting both economic security and social values. Ask for deep changes in favor of the poor and the working class.

2-LIBERAL: Favor activist government as a means of economic security and equitable redistribution of resources but reject gov. intervention in favor of a particular set of social values. Ask for calm changes mainly in favor of the middle class.

3-MODERATE

4-CONSERVATIVE: The marketplace as the only means of distributing economic benefits and the government must support the traditional values. Favor the status quo: no political or economic changes. Favor the business segment of society.

5-REACTIONARY / LIBERTARIAN: The government must not interfere in the economy nor in the setting of social values. Ask for restoring early economic and social privileges of the high class.

MEASURING PUBLIC OPINION

1-ELECTIONS

2-INTEREST GROUPS

3-THE MASS MEDIA

4-CONTACTS BETWEEN THE LEADERS AND THE PEOPLE (Include mail and phone calls).

5-POLLS (The best measure).

 

THE MASS MEDIA

1-THERE ARE MORE THAN 1,400 TV STATIONS (300 PUBLIC). MORE THAN 68% OF ALL AMERICANS GET INFORMED ONLY BY TV.

2-THE BIG FIVE (ABC, CBS, NBC, PBS, AND CNN) GENERATE MORE THAN 90% OF ALL THE TV PROGRAMMING (THE CANNING PROCESS). MOST OF THIS COMPANIES ARE OWNED BY BIG ECONOMIC BUSINESS (GE-NBC, WESTINGHOUSE-CBS, TIME-WARNER-TURNER, DISNEY-ABC).

3-LESS AND LESS PEOPLE READ BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

4-A FEW ELITE DAILIES (NY TIMES, WASHINGTON POST, WALL STREET JOURNAL) ESTABLISH A NATIONAL STANDARD OF STORY SELECTION.

5-ONLY ONE NEWS AGENCY (300 FULL-TIME REPORTERS), ASSOCIATED PRESS (AP), DISTRIBUTES MORE THAN 95% OF THE NEWS STORIES USED BY NATIONAL DAILIES AND TV STATIONS.

6-COMMERCIALS (BIG BUSINESS) ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF INCOME OF NEWSPAPERS, TV AND RADIO STATIONS.

7-MOST OF RADIO STATIONS TODAY USE “CANNED NEWS” (NO JOURNALISTS - CUT COSTS).

 

INTEREST GROUPS (Pluralism vs. Elitism)

1-ECONOMIC GROUPS

BUSINESS

LABOR / UNIONS

AGRICULTURAL

PROFESSIONAL

2-CITIZEN GROUPS

PUBLIC INTEREST (League of Women)

SINGLE ISSUES (Pro-Life, Pro-Choice, Environment, Gays, Elders, Rifle Ass.)

IDEOLOGICAL (Christian Moral Fund, NAACP, KKK)

3-GOVERNMENT GROUPS

FEDERAL (Federal Agencies)

SUB-NATIONAL (Council of State Governors, Conference of Mayors)

FOREIGN (Embassies, International Corporations)

 

INTEREST GROUPS & POLITICS

1-LOBBYING

2-PAC’s (MONEY TALKS?)

3-IRON TRIANGLES

4-MANIPULATING THE MEDIA


3-The Legislative Branch.

Objectives

1-Describe the process of redistricting (I A).

2-Describe the organizational structure and functions of the Congress (II B).

3-Outline the passage of a federal law (II B).

4-Evaluate the importance of the “elastic clause” (II B).

5-Summarize the constitutional powers of Congress (II B).

6-Describe the qualifications and responsibilities of members of Congress (II B).

7-Evaluate the effects of legislative acts on civil rights and civil liberties (III B).

 

VOCABULARY:

CONGRESS: THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES & THE SENATE

1-TERM: THE LENGTH OF TIME BETWEEN ELECTIONS.

2-SESSION: FORMAL MEETINGS IN WHICH MEMBERS PERFORM LEGISLATIVE WORK. (MOST OF THE YEAR)

3-SPECIAL SESSION: A MEETING CALLED BY THE PRESIDENT TO DEAL WITH A PRESSING ISSUE.

4-ADJOURN SINE DIE: ENDING A SESSION.

5-APPORTIONMENT: DISTRIBUTION OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE HOUSE AMONG THE STATES ON THE BASIS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE POPULATIONS.

6-REAPPORTION: CHANGES AFTER EACH DECENNIAL CENSUS. (1789 - 65 SEATS, 1792 - 106 SEATS, 1912 - 435)

7-SINGLE-MEMBER DISTRICT: VOTERS IN EACH DISTRICT CAN ELECT ONLY ONE OF THE STATE’S REPRESENTATIVES, THE ONE WHO WILL REPRESENT THAT DISTRICT.

8-STATE AT-LARGE OR GENERAL TICKET SYSTEM: ALL VOTERS CAN VOTE FOR ALL THE STATE’S REPRESENTATIVES.

9-GERRYMANDERING: DISTRICTS CREATED TO THE ADVANTAGE OF A PARTICULAR POLITICAL PARTY: CONCENTRATE THE OPPOSITION IN ONE OR TWO DISTRICTS, LEAVING THE OTHERS COMFORTABLY SAFE, OR SPREAD THE OPPOSITION AS THINLY AS POSSIBLE AMONG SEVERAL DISTRICTS, MAKING IMPOSSIBLE ITS ABILITY TO WIN ANYWHERE.

10-CONTINUOS BODY: IN THE SENATE, ALL ITS SEATS ARE NEVER UP FOR ELECTION AT THE SAME TIME. THE TERMS ARE STAGGERED: 1/3 OF THE 100 SEATS (33) EXPIRED EVERY TWO YEARS.

11-CONSTITUENTS: THE PEOPLE WHOSE INTERESTS CONGRESSMEN SHOULD REPRESENT, THE ONES WHO ELECTED THEM.

12-OVERSIGHT FUNCTION: CHECK THAT THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH AGENCIES WORK PROPERLY AND IN LINE WITH THE POLICIES AND LAWS SET BY THE CONGRESS.

13-STRICT CONSTRUCTIONISTS: ANTI-FEDERALISTS. STATES MUST KEEP AS MUCH POWER AS POSSIBLE. STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. JEFFERSON.

14-LIBERAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS: STRONG FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. LIBERAL INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION. HAMILTON.

15-EMINENT DOMAIN: THE POWER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO TAKE PRIVATE PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC USE.

16-THE NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE (ARTICLE I, SECTION 8, CLAUSE 18 OF THE CONSTITUTION): CALLED THE ELASTIC CLAUSE. IT HAS ALLOWED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO STRETCH ITS POWERS. BASED IN THAT PROVISION, THE IMPLIED POWERS FLOW.

17-IMPEACHMENT: BRINGING CHARGES AND REMOVING FROM OFFICE  ANY ELECTED CIVIL OFFICER.

18-THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: LEADER OF THE MAJORITY PARTY. THE THIRD MAN IN LINE.

19-FLOOR LEADERS (MAJORITY & MINORITY): PARTY OFFICERS WHO ARE LEGISLATIVE STRATEGISTS AND TRY TO CARRY OUT THE DECISIONS OF THEIR PARTIES’ CAUCUSES.

20-WHIP: HE / SHE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHECKING WITH PARTY MEMBERS AND ADVISING THE FLOOR LEADER OF THE NUMBER OF VOTES THAT CAN BE COUNTED ON IN ANY PARTICULAR MATTER.

21-PARTY CAUCUS: IT IS A CLOSED MEETING OF THE MEMBERS OF EACH PARTY IN EACH HOUSE.

22-STANDING COMMITTEES & SUBCOMMITTEES: THEY DO THE BULK OF THE WORK OF CONGRESS: PROPOSE / PROCESS THE BILLS.

23-COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN: THE PERSON WHO HEAD EACH STANDING COMMITTEE. THEY ARE CHOSEN FROM THE MAJORITY PARTY BY THE MAJORITY PARTY CAUCUS. THESE ARE STRATEGIC POSTS.

24-SENIORITY RULE: AN UNWRITTEN CUSTOM. THE MOST IMPORTANT POSTS WILL BE HELD BY THE PARTY MEMBERS WITH THE LONGEST RECORDS OF SERVICE IN CONGRESS.

25-SELECT COMMITTEE: A SPECIAL GROUP SET UP FOR SOME SPECIFIC PURPOSE, FOR A LIMITED TIME.

26-JOIN COMMITTEE: ONE COMPOSED OF MEMBERS OF BOTH HOUSES.

27-CONFERENCE COMMITTEE: A TEMPORARY JOINT BODY CREATED TO PRODUCE A COMPROMISE ON A SPECIFIC BILL.

28-BILL vs LAW:

29-CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS: THEY ARE ISSUED BY BOTH HOUSES JOINTLY AND DO NOT HAVE THE FORCE OF LAW. THEY ARE USED TO STATE THE CONGRESS POSITION ON SOME MATTER.

30-JOINT RESOLUTIONS: THEY DEAL WITH UNUSUAL OR TEMPORARY MATTERS (ANNEXATIONS, CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS) AND THEY ARE LITTLE DIFFERENT FROM BILLS.

31-RESOLUTIONS: THEY ARE REGULARLY USED FOR THE ADOPTION OF A NEW RULE OR PROCEDURE IN ONE OF THE HOUSES. NOT A LAW.

32-RIDER: A PROVISION NOT LIKELY TO PASS ON ITS OWN MERIT, BUT ATTACHED TO AN IMPORTANT MEASURE.

33-QUORUM: A SIMPLE MAJORITY OF THE FULL MEMBERSHIP (218).

34-FILIBUSTER: PARLIAMENTARY MANEUVER TO DELAY OR PREVENT SENATE ACTION ON A BILL (TALK A BILL TO DEATH, TIME KILLING MOTIONS, QUORUM CALLS).

35-THE CLOSURE RULE: THIS WAS CREATED 0TO STOP FILIBUSTERS. IT NEEDS TO BE SUBMITTED AT LEAST BY 16 SENATORS AND OBTAIN THE FAVORABLE VOTE OF 3/5 OF THE SENATE (60). AFTER THIS, NO MORE THAN 30 HOURS OF FLOOR TIME MAY BE SPENT ON THAT BILL AND THEN IT MUST BE BROUGHT TO FINAL VOTE. ONLY 1/3 OF THE ATTEMPTS TO APPLY THIS RULE HAVE SUCCEEDED.

36-VETO / POCKET VETO / ITEM VETO:

37-HEARING: IT SERVES AS AN INFORMATION-GATHERING PROCESS FOR A COMMITTEE TO TAKE A DECISION.

38-PIGEONHOLE: SET ASIDE A BILL TO NEVER REAPPEAR.

39-THE RULES COMMITTEE: IT DECIDES THE ORDER IN WHICH CONGRESS WILL CONSIDER THE BILLS.

40-OVERRIDE:

41-INCUMBENTS:

 

MAJOR IDEAS IN THIS UNIT

1-CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS TEND TO HAVE A STRONG LOCAL ORIENTATION AND TO FAVOR INCUMBENTS.

2-CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED IN PART ALONG POLITICAL PARTY LINES; ITS COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP IS PROVIDED BY PARTY LEADERS.

3-THE WORK OF CONGRESS IS DONE MAINLY THROUGH ITS COMMITTEES.

4-CONGRESS IS LIMITED BY THE LACK OF DIRECTION AND ORGANIZATION USUALLY NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL POLICIES. IT WORKS WELL WHEN HANDLING POLICIES OF NARROW SCOPE.

5-INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS OF CONGRESS ARE EXTRAORDINARILY RESPONSIVE TO LOCAL INTERESTS AND INTEREST GROUPS. THESE RESPONSES OFTEN TAKE PLACE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF PARTY TENDENCIES.

6-CONGRESS’ OVERSIGHT FUNCTION IS OF LESS CONCERN TO ITS MEMBERS THAN THE LAWMAKING AND REPRESENTING FUNCTIONS.

 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR REPRESENTATIVES

1-AT LEAST 25 YEARS OLD. MEDIAN AGE IS OVER 52.

2-AMERICAN CITIZEN FOR 7 YEARS

3-LIVE IN THE STATE / DISTRICT FROM WHICH HE / SHE WAS CHOSEN.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR SENATORS

1-AT LEAST 30 YEARS OLD. MEDIAN AGE IS OVER 58.

2-AMERICAN CITIZEN FOR 9 YEARS.

3-LIVE IN THE STATE FROM WHICH HE / SHE WAS ELECTED.

DUTIES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS

1-ACT AS LEGISLATORS (MAKE THE LAW)

2-REPRESENT AND SERVE THEIR CONSTITUENTS

3-OVERSEE THE WORK OF THE AGENCIES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH.

 

HOW A CONGRESSMAN CAN VOTE

1-TRUSTEE: According to their personal conscience and independent judgment.

2-DELEGATE: As the agents of those who elected them. The constituents’ interests are first.

3-PARTISAN: In line with their party’s platform and the wishes of their party’s leaders. They owe their first allegiance to their political party.

4-POLITICO: Combine the basic elements of the other three described above.

 

 

Year 2008
1-FORMAL SALARY (Representatives & Senators):
$169,300

Senate Leadership
Majority Leader - $188,100
Minority Leader - $188,100

House Leadership
Speaker of the House - $217,400
Majority Leader - $188,100
Minority Leader - $188,100

A cost-of-living-adjustment (COLA) increase takes effect annually unless Congress votes to not accept it.

2-FRINGE BENEFITS

2.1-TAX DEDUCTION FOR TWO HOUSES

2.2-LOW PREMIUMS FOR LIFE & HEALTH INSURANCE

2.3-RETIREMENT PLAN OF $150,000 A YEAR FOR LIFE.

3-OFFICIAL EXPENSES (ADVANTAGES TO BE RE-ELECTED)

3.1-ALLOWANCE FOR RUNNING TWO OFFICES AND HIRING STAFF.

3.2-OFFICIAL MAIL IS POSTAGE FREE.

3.4-FREE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPEECHES, NEWSLETTERS, AND OTHER MATERIALS.

3.5-FREE PARKING.

3.6-FREE USE OF SOME FINE RESTAURANTS AND TWO GYMS WITH SWIMMING POOLS IN WASHINGTON DC.

3.7-TRAVELING EXPENSES.

3.8-FREE, UNLIMITED LONG-DISTANCE TELEPHONE CALLS.

STRUCTURE OF CONGRESS

POWERS OF CONGRESS

1-THE EXPRESSED POWERS

THE POWER TO TAX

THE POWER TO BORROW

THE COMMERCE POWER

THE CURRENCY POWER

THE BANKRUPTCY LAWS POWER

THE FOREIGN RELATIONS AND WAR POWERS

ADDITIONAL POWERS:

*NATURALIZATION

*THE POSTAL SERVICE

*COPYRIGHTS & PATENTS

*WEIGHTS & MEASURES

*JUDICIAL POWERS (CREATE FEDERAL COURTS AND PROVIDE FOR THEM).

 

2-THE IMPLIED POWERS (THE NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE)

ESTABLISH THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM

MAKE TAX EVASION A CRIME

ESTABLISH FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION PROGRAMS

DRAFT MEN INTO THE ARMED FORCES

FIX MINIMUM WAGES AND MAXIMUM WORK HOURS

 

3-THE INHERENT POWERS

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS

ELECTORAL DUTIES (PRESIDENT OR VICE EXCEPTIONALLY)

IMPEACHMENT

EXECUTIVE POWERS (CONFIRM PRESIDENT’S NOMINATIONS)

INVESTIGATORY POWERS

POLITICAL PARTIES IN CONGRESS

110th. Congress (2007-09). Party Summary.

The Senate

Membership has changed with one death and one resignation.

Affiliation

 

 

 

Total

 

Notes

Democratic

Independent

Republican

Vacant

Members

(shading indicates
majority caucus)

Begin (2007-01-04)

49

2

49

100

0

 

2007-06-04

48

99

1

Craig Thomas (R) died.

2007-06-25

49

100

0

John Barrasso (R) replaced Thomas.

2007-12-18

48

99

1

Trent Lott (R) resigned.

2007-12-31

49

100

0

Roger Wicker (R) replaced Lott.

Latest voting share

51%

49%

 

 

 

Notes

 

Both caucus with
the Democrats.[11]

 

 

 

 

The House of Representatives

Membership has fluctuated many times with six deaths and six resignations. The

Affiliation

 

 

Total

 

Notes

Democratic

Republican

Vacant

Members

 

Begin (2007-01-03)

233

202

435

0

 

2007-02-13

201

434

1

Charlie Norwood (R) died.

2007-04-22

232

433

2

Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) died.

2007-07-01

231

432

3

Marty Meehan (D) resigned.

2007-07-25

202

433

2

Paul Broun (R) took Norwood's seat.

2007-09-04

232

434

1

Laura Richardson (D) took Millender-McDonald's seat.

2007-09-05

201

433

2

Paul Gilmor (R) died.

2007-10-06

200

432

3

Jo Ann Davis (R) died.

2007-10-18

233

433

2

Niki Tsongas (D) took Meehan's seat.

2007-11-26

199

432

3

Dennis Hastert (R) resigned.

2007-12-13

201

434

1

Bob Latta (R) took Gillmor's seat.
Rob Wittman (R) took Davis's seat.

2007-12-15

232

433

2

Julia Carson (D) died.

2007-12-31

200

432

3

Roger Wicker (R) resigned.

2008-01-14

199

431

4

Bobby Jindal (R) resigned.

2008-02-02

198

430

5

Richard Baker (R) resigned.

2008-02-11

231

429

6

Tom Lantos (D) died.

2008-03-11

232

430

5

Bill Foster (D) took Hastert's seat.

2008-03-13

233

431

4

André Carson (D) took J. Carson's seat.

2008-04-10

234

432

3

Jackie Speier (D) took Lantos's seat.

2008-05-06

235

433

2

Don Cazayoux (D) took Baker's seat.

2008-05-07

199

434

1

Steve Scalise (R) took Jindal's seat.

2008-05-20

236

435

0

Travis Childers (D) took Wicker's seat.

2008-05-31

235

434

1

Albert Wynn (D) resigned.

Latest voting share

54.1%

45.9%

 

 

 

Non-voting members

4

1

5

0

 

 

HOW A BILL BECOMES LAW: THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS

Also Check: Library of Congress, Congress.org, House of Representatives, Senate.

 


4-The Executive Branch.

Objectives

1-Discuss the responsiveness of elected and appointed public officials to requests from constituents (II B).

2-List the constitutional qualifications for the presidency (II B).

3-List the constitutional duties and powers of the president and their limitations (II B).

4-Identify various roles of the president (II B).

5-Describe the organization and responsibilities of the departments and agencies in the executive branch (II B).

6-Identify the constitutional and other duties of the office of vice president (II B).

7-Outline the procedure for replacing a president prior to the expiration of his term in office (II B).

8-Compare and contrast the influence / role of the president in domestic and foreign policy (II B).

9-Summarize the constitutional powers of the president respect to foreign policy (II B).

10-Analyze the strength and weaknesses of the federal system (II E).

11-Explain the process of elaboration and approval of the federal budget (IV A).

12-Define foreign policy, describe its key elements and the major trends in American foreign policy through its history (VI A).

13-Analyze the problems facing the U.S. in dealing with various foreign powers (VI B, C).

 

VOCABULARY

1-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS OR ELECTORAL COLLEGE: A SPECIAL BODY OF ELECTORS WHOSE TASK IS TO VOTE IN A FORMAL WAY TO COMPLY WITH THE LETTER OF THE CONSTITUTION TO ELECT THE PRESIDENT. THEY ARE CHOSEN IN EACH STATE BY POPULAR VOTE AT THE SAME TIME AND ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE POPULAR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION AND ON THE WINNER-TAKE-ALL BASIS (THE CANDIDATE WITH MORE POPULAR VOTES GET ALL THE ELECTORAL VOTES IN THAT STATE) AS WELL AS ACCORDING TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF CONGRESSMEN THE STATE HAS. THEY WILL VOTE A MONTH LATER.

2-ELECTORAL VOTES: THE NUMBER OF VOTES THAT THE CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT CAN GET IN EACH STATE ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF CONGRESSMEN THAT THE STATE HAS.

3-KEYNOTE ADDRESS: THE SPEECH THAT SHOULD BE THE HIGH POINT IN THE OPENING SESSION OF THE PARTY NATIONAL CONVENTION.

4-PLATFORM: THE BASIC STATEMENT OF THE PARTY’S PRINCIPLES AND ITS STANDS ON MAJOR POLICY MATTERS. MANY TIMES THESE PLATFORMS ARE BLAND TO AVOID THE LOSS OF POSSIBLE VOTERS.

5-EXECUTIVE ORDER: THE PRESIDENTIAL POWER TO ISSUE A DIRECTIVE, A RULE THAT HAS THE EFFECT OF LAW.

6-REPRIEVE: POSTPONE THE EXECUTION OF A SENTENCE.

7-COMMUTE: REDUCE THE LENGTH OF A SENTENCE OR A FINE IMPOSE BY COURT.

8-AMNESTY: A GENERAL PARDON TO A GROUP OF LAW VIOLATORS.

9-CABINET: AN INFORMAL ADVISORY BODY CREATED BY THE PRESIDENT. THE SECRETARIES OR HEADS OF THE DEPARTMENTS.

10-BUREAUCRACY: AN ORGANIZATION BUILT ON THE PRINCIPLES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY, JOB SPECIALIZATION, AND FORMAL RULES WHOSE EXISTENCE IS BASED ON THE NECESSITY OF ACCOMPLISH COMPLEX TASKS. BUREAUCRACIES ARE PRESENT IN ALL KIND OF ACTIVITIES OF THE HUMAN LIFE.

11-ADMINISTRATION: THE GOVERNMENT’S MANY ADMINISTRATORS AND AGENCIES (BUREAUCRACY).

12-INDEPENDENT AGENCIES: THOSE FEDERAL AGENCIES LOCATED OUTSIDE THE DEPARTMENTS BECAUSE THEIR NEED OF AUTONOMY, THEIR STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE, AND TO KEEP THEM OUT OF THE INFLUENCE OF BOTH PARTISAN AND PRESSURE POLITICS.

13-REGULATORY COMMISSIONS: INSTITUTIONS WITH QUASI-LEGISLATIVE AND QUASI-JUDICIAL POWERS CREATED BY CONGRESS WHOSE REGULATIONS HAVE THE FORCE OF LAW. THEY WORK AS EXECUTIVE BODIES BUT ARE INDEPENDENT OF ALL THREE BRACHES.

14-SPOILS SYSTEM OR PATRONAGE: THE PRACTICE OF GIVING OFFICES AND OTHER FAVORS OF GOVERNMENT TO POLITICAL SUPPORTERS AND FRIENDS.

15-ENTITLEMENTS: BENEFITS THAT THE FEDERAL LAW SAYS MUST BE PAID TO THOSE WHO MEET THE ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS (MEDICARE, MEDICAID, FOOD STAMPS, VETERAN PENSIONS, ETC).

16-APPROPRIATIONS PROCESS: THE PROCESS OF PROPOSAL, ANALYSIS, AND APPROVAL OF THE FEDERAL BRANCHES, DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES BUDGET.

17-CONTINUING RESOLUTION: A LEGISLATIVE MEASURE TO ALLOW THE CONTINUOUS OPERATION OF GOVERNMENT ALTHOUGH THERE IS NOT A FINAL AGREEMENT ON THE BUDGET.

18-ISOLATIONISM: A PURPOSEFUL REFUSAL TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE AFFAIRS OF THE REST OF THE WORLD.

19-THE RIGHT TO LEGATION: THE RIGHT TO SEND AND RECEIVE DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES.

20-AMBASSADOR & CONSUL:

21-PASSPORT: A CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT TO ITS CITIZENS WHO PLAN TO TRAVEL ABROAD.

22-VISA:

23-DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY: THE PRIVILEGE THAT ESTABLISH THAT DIPLOMATS ARE NOT SUBJECT TO THE LAWS OF THE STATE TO WHICH THEY ARE ACCREDITED.

24-DRAFT: INVOLUNTARY RECRUITING. COMPULSORY MILITARY SERVICE. THE SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM.

25-DETERRENCE: THE POLICY OF MAKING THE COUNTRY AND ITS ALLIES SO MILITARILY STRONG THAT IT DETER / DISCOURAGE ANY ATTACK.

26-PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION:

27-POLICY OF CONTAINMENT vs. POLICY OF DETENTE:

28-NUCLEAR WEAPONS RACE:

29-COLD WAR:

30-STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION AGREEMENT (SALT):

31-CAREER BUREAUCRATS vs. POLITICAL APPOINTEES:

32-POWERS OF THE US PRESIDENT:

 

MAJOR IDEAS IN THIS UNIT

1-PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS, NATIONAL CRISES, AND CHANGING NATIONAL AND WORLD CONDITIONS HAVE REQUIRED THE PRESIDENCY TO BECOME A STRONG OFFICE.

2-THE MODERN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN IS A MARATHON IN WHICH SELF-SELECTED CANDIDATES MUST PLAN FOR A STRONG START IN THE NOMINATING CONTESTS AND CENTER THEIR GENERAL ELECTION STRATEGIES ON MEDIA, ISSUES, AND A BASELINE OF SUPPORT.

3-THE MODERN PRESIDENCY COULD NOT OPERATE WITHOUT A LARGE STAFF OF ASSISTANTS, EXPERTS, AND HIGH-LEVEL MANAGERS. THE SIZE OF THIS STAFF MAKES IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE PRESIDENT TO EXERCISE COMPLETE CONTROL OVER IT.

4-PRESIDENTIAL INFLUENCE ON NATIONAL POLICY IS HIGHLY VARIABLE. THE FOREIGN POLICY IS MORE A RESULT OF PRESIDENTIAL DECISION MAKING WHICH IS INFLUENCED BY MANY FACTORS.

5-THE PRESIDENT’S ELECTION BY NATIONAL VOTE AND POSITION AS SOLE CHIEF EXECUTIVE ENSURE THAT OTHERS WILL LISTEN TO HIS IDEAS; BUT, TO LEAD EFFECTIVELY, HE NEEDS TO COMPROMISE AND HE MUST HAVE SUPPORT.

6-THE PRESIDENT OFTEN FINDS DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN THE HIGH LEVEL OF PUBLIC SUPPORT THAT GIVES FORCE TO HIS LEADERSHIP. HE IS THE ONE TO BLAME FOR NATIONAL PROBLEMS.

7-BUREAUCRACY IS AN INEVITABLE CONSEQUENCE OF COMPLEXITY AND SCALE. IT IS SUPPOSED TO BE A NON-PARTISAN ORGANISM THAT IS ALSO EXPECTED SIMULTANEOUSLY TO RESPOND TO THE DIRECTION OF PARTISAN OFFICIALS AND TO ADMINISTER PROGRAMS FAIRLY AND COMPETENTLY.

8-BUREAUCRATS NATURALLY TAKE AN “AGENCY POINT OF VIEW” WHICH THEY PROMOTE THROUGH THEIR EXPERT KNOWLEDGE, SUPPORT FROM CLIENTELE GROUPS, AND BACKING BY CONGRESS OR THE PRESIDENT. THEY ARE ABLE TO ACHIEVE POWER IN THEIR OWN RIGHT.

THE ROLES OF THE PRESIDENT

1-CHIEF OF STATE

2-CHIEF EXECUTIVE

3-CHIEF JURIST

4-CHIEF DIPLOMAT

5-COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF

6-CHIEF LEGISLATOR

7-PARTY CHIEF OR CHIEF POLITICIAN

QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE PRESIDENCY

1-BE A NATURAL-BORN CITIZEN

2-BE AT LEAST 35 YEARS OLD

3-HAVE LIVED IN THE U.S. FOR AT LEAST 14 YEARS.

 

TERM: 4-8 YEARS (May serve 10 years)


Add two more: Clinton (D) and Bush, Jr. (R). Both are Protestants, both went to college and became lawyers, both were previously Governors.

Presidential Problems

PAY AND BENEFITS

1-A SALARY OF $ 400, 000.

Date established Salary
September 24, 1789 $25,000
March 3, 1873 $50,000
March 4, 1909 $75,000
January 19, 1949

$100,000

January 20, 1969 $200,000
January 20, 2001 $400,000

 

 

 

 

 

2-PERSONAL EXPENSE ACCOUNT: $ 50,000. A YEAR

3-THE WHITE HOUSE (Also Check: Official website for the White House)

4-A LARGE STAFF

5-A YACHT

6-A FLEET OF OFFICIAL CARS

7-THE AIR FORCE ONE

8-THE CAMP DAVID RESORT IN THE MOUNTAINS OF MARYLAND

9-COMPLETE HEALTH CARE

10-TRAVEL FUNDS: $100,000

11-ENTERTAINMENT ACCOUNT: $19,000.

11-LIFETIME PENSION: $191,300 (2008) A YEAR ( WITHOUT CONTRIBUTIONS WHILE IN OFFICE) FOR HIM AND $20,000 A YEAR FOR HIS WIDOW. $150,000 FOR MAINTAINING AN OFFICE AND STAFF. SECRET SERVICE PROTECTION DURING THE NEXT 10 YEARS AFTER LEAVING OFFICE.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS:

STATE PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES (Different laws in each state rule this process. This is the way each state elects its party-candidates.)

1-CLOSED: ONLY PREVIOUSLY REGISTERED PARTY MEMBERS CAN VOTE.

2-OPEN: ANY QUALIFIED VOTER CAN TAKE PART. VOTERS DECIDE AT THE POLLING PLACE IN WHICH PARTY PRIMARY THEY WISH TO VOTE.

3-BLANKET: A WIDE-OPEN PRIMARY. THIS SYSTEM ALLOWS A SPLIT TICKET VOTE.

4-RUNOFF: WHERE MAJORITY (51%) IS REQUIRED TO WIN INSTEAD OF PLURALITY, THE TWO TOP VOTE-GETTERS RACE AGAIN TO ELECT THE FINAL CANDIDATE FROM THE PARTY.

5-NON-PARTISAN: CANDIDATES FROM ALL PARTIES COMPETE AND THE WINNER RUNS UNOPPOSED IN THE GENERAL ELECTIONS SUBJECT ONLY TO WRITE-IN OPPOSITION.

 

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION

1-ADOPT THE PARTY’S PLATFORM

2-PICK ITS NATIONAL PRESIDENTIAL / VICE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE

3-UNIFY THE PARTY BEHIND THOSE CANDIDATES

 

FLAWS IN THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE SYSTEM

 

1-THERE IS THE EVER-PRESENT THREAT THAT THE WINNER OF THE POPULAR VOTE WILL NOT WIN THE PRESIDENCY BECAUSE THE WINNER-TAKE-ALL SYSTEM (THIS HAS HAPPENED 3 TIMES).

2-NOTHING IN THE CONSTITUTION REQUIRES THE ELECTORS TO VOTE FOR THE CANDIDATE FAVORED BY THE POPULAR VOTE / BY THEIR PARTY. (IN 9 OCCASIONS SOMEONE HAS “BROKEN HIS / HER PLEDGES”). ).

3-IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THE PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST WILL BE DECIDED IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ESPECIALLY WHEN THERE IS A STRONG THIRD PARTY, BECAUSE NO CANDIDATE OBTAIN THE REQUIRED MAJORITY OF THE ELECTORAL VOTES. (THIS HAS HAPPENED ONLY TWICE).

 

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

1-EXECUTING THE LAW.

2-THE ORDINANCE POWER (EXECUTIVE ORDERS).

3-THE APPOINTING AND REMOVAL POWER.

4-THE POWER TO MAKE TREATIES AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS.

5-THE POWER OF RECOGNITION.

6-THE DOMINANT ROLE IN MILITARY AFFAIRS. UNDECLARED WAR (60 DAYS): THE NEED OF SECRECY (CIA), NATIONAL SECURITY. THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS CONTROL.

7-POWER TO RECOMMEND LEGISLATION AND TO VETO.

8-JUDICIAL POWERS: REPRIEVE THE EXECUTION OF A SENTENCE, TOTAL PARDON, COMMUTATION OF A SENTENCE, AND AMNESTY; NOMINATE FEDERAL JUDGES.

 

THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

1-THE WHITE HOUSE OFFICE: THE INNER CIRCLE (350 AIDS)

-THE CHIEF OF STAFF

-THE PRESS SECRETARY

-THE PRESIDENT PHYSICIAN

-LEGAL EXPERTS

-SPEECH WRITERS

2-THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

-THE VICE PRESIDENT

-THE SECRETARIES OF STATE AND DEFENSE

-THE DIRECTOR OF THE CIA

-THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF

-THE PRESIDENT’S ASSISTANT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY

 

3-THE OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET

4-THE OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY

5-THE COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

 

THE CABINET

-THE ADMINISTRATIVE HEAD OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS

-ADVISERS TO THE PRESIDENT

(More or less delegation of power according to the personal style of the President.)


Add Department of Homeland Security (Created in 2002)

THE INDEPENDENT AGENCIES

1-EXECUTIVE AGENCIES

2-REGULATORY COMMISSIONS

3-GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS

THE CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM vs. THE SPOILS SYSTEM

-3 MILLION OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

-2,500 APPOINTEES (THE HIGHEST RANKING JOBS)

-THE CREATION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (1871)

-THE PENDLETON ACT (1883):

1-ESTABLISHED THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE PRESENT FEDERAL CIVIL SERVICE: MERIT AS THE BASIS FOR HIRING AND PROMOTION.

2-FORBADE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO TAKE PART IN PARTISAN POLITICS.

3-DEFINED THE CONCEPT OF VETERAN’S PREFERENCE

-THE CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT (1978):

1-THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: Sets position classifications, Advertises, Examines and interviews candidates, Keeps registers, Hires, Trains, Manages the salaries scales and rises, etc.

2-THE MERIT SYSTEM PROTECTION BOARD: Controls and protects the merit principle.

 

THE FOREIGN SERVICE

1-AMBASADOR AND SPECIAL DIPLOMATS (U.N., N.A.T.O., INTERNATIONAL EVENTS).

2-MILITARY ATTACHÉ

3-FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD SECRETARIES (COMMERCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AID, INTELLIGENCE, CONSULAR REPRESENTATIVES).

4-CONSUL (OTHER BIG CITIES).

 

THE MILITARY

1-THE ARMY (REGULAR & RESERVE)

-INFANTRY

-THE ARTILLERY

-THE ARMORED CAVALRY (TANKS, OTHER ARMORED VEHICLES, ASSAULT HELICOPTERS)

2-THE NAVY

-U.S. MARINE CORPS

-THE COAST GUARD

-THE FLEETS

3-THE AIR FORCE

 

THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF

OTHER KEY FOREIGN / DEFENSE AGENCIES

1-THE CIA

2- NASA

 

AMERICAN PRESIDENTIAL FOREIGN POLICIES

1-ISOLATIONISM (1700’s -1800’s): WASHINGTON DIDN'T WANT THE YOUNG U.S. TO BE INVOLVED IN FOREIGN CONFLICTS.

2-IMPERIALISM (1898-1920’s): THE MONROE DOCTRINE, THE  MANIFEST DESTINY POLICY, THE BIG STICK DIPLOMACY (Theodore Roosevelt's corollary).

3-GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY (1930’s): BUSINESS & DIPLOMACY INSTEAD OF BULLETS IN LATIN AMERICA (F.D.R).

4-TRUMAN DOCTRINE , CONTAINTMENT POLICY (1945-1970’s): FOREIGN AID TO ALLIES (THE MARSHALL PLAN), MILITARY ALLIANCES (N.A.T.O.), THE COLD WAR (KOREA, CUBA, VIETNAM), THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS RACE, THE DOMINO THEORY.

5-DETENTE POLICY (1970’s - 1980’s): NIXON VISITED CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION> REDUCE TENSIONS> PRESERVE PEACE> S.A.L.T.

6-STAR WARS: The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD).

6-THE NEW GLOBAL ORDER (1990’s): THE U.S. AS THE MAJOR WORLD ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL LEADER, THE U.N. AS A MAJOR COORDINATOR AND ARBITRATOR, GLOBAL ECONOMICS, FOREIGN AID TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, AND NEO-LIBERALISM. WAR AGAINST TERRORISM. BUSH DOCTRINE: PREEMPTIVE STRIKES.

Also Check: Presidential Libraries, The American President by Historical Periods, Presidential Resources, Presidential Elections.


5-The Judicial Branch.

Objectives

1-Describe the organizational structure of the national judiciary (II B).

2-Explain the process of judicial review (II B).

3-Evaluate the selection process for supreme court justices, noting the inherent powers of the office (II B).

4-Differenciate between original and appellate jurisdiction in the federal judiciary (II B).

5-Describe the qualifications and responsibilities of members of the judicial branch (II B).

6-Analyze governmental responses to social problems (II E).

7-Describe the responsibilities of citizens in a democracy (III A).

8-Identify the constitutional guarantees to which an individual is entitled in our nation (III A).

9-Describe the constitutional and legal protections guaranteed to persons accused of a crime (III B).

10-Evaluate the effects of legislative and judicial acts on civil rights and civil liberties in the U.S. (III B).

11-Discuss the importance of maintaining a balance between law and order and the need to protect individual rights (III B).

12-Examine selected Supreme Court landmark cases which have helped to define individual rights (III B).

13-Explain how the U.S. citizenship can be acquired (V B).

14-Examine selected documents (Bill of Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights) (V C).

 

VOCABULARY

1-JURISDICTION: POWER OF A COURT TO TRY AND DECIDE A CASE.

2-PLAINTIFF: THE PARTY WHO BRINGS THE CHARGES.

3-DEFENDANT: THE PERSON AGAINST WHOM A COURT ACTION IS BROUGHT BY THE PLAINTIFF.

4-WRIT OF CERTIORARI: ORDER ISSUED BY A HIGHER COURT DIRECTING A LOWER COURT TO SEND UP THE RECORD OF A CASE FOR ITS REVIEW.

5-CONCUR: AGREE WITH. / DISSENT: DISAGREE WITH

6-CERTIFICATE: A METHOD OF PUTTING A CASE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT WHEN A LOWER COURT IS NOT CLEAR ABOUT THE LAW / PROCEDURE AND ASK FOR ADVISE.

7-REDRESS: SATISFACTION OF A CLAIM BROUGHT IN COURT.

8-CIVIL LAW vs. CRIMINAL LAW:

9-RIGHTS & LIBERTIES OF PEOPLE:

9.1-CIVIL LIBERTIES: SAFETY OF PERSONS, THEIR OPINIONS, AND PROPERTY (BILL OF RIGHTS).

9.2-CIVIL RIGHTS: AVOID / FIGHT DISCRIMINATION OR IMPROPER TREATMENT BECAUSE OF SEX, AGE, RACE, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, DISABILITIES.

9.3-HUMAN RIGHTS: SEE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION & INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.

10-DUE PROCESS: CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTEE THAT GOVERNMENT WILL NOT DEPRIVE ANY PERSON OF LIFE, LIBERTY, OR PROPERTY BY ANY UNFAIR, ARBITRARY, OR UNREASONABLE ACTION.

11-ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE: THE FIRST AMENDMENT PROHIBITS THAT THE GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHES OR SANCTIONS ANY RELIGION.

12-FREE EXERCISE CLAUSE: THE FIRST AMENDMENT GUARANTEES TO EVERY PERSON THE RIGHT TO BELIEVE WHATEVER THE PERSON CHOOSES IN MATTER OF RELIGION.

13-DEFAMATION: SLANDER / LIBEL: SPEECH / WRITING THAT WRONGFULLY DAMAGES A PERSON’S REPUTATION.

14-SHIELD LAW: LAW FOUND IN SOME STATES DESIGNED TO PROTECT REPORTERS AGAINST BEING FORCED TO DISCLOSE THEIR CONFIDENTIAL NEWS SOURCES.

15-SEDITION: SPOKEN, WRITTEN, OR OTHER ACTION PROMOTING RESISTANCE TO LAWFUL AUTHORITY; ESPECIALLY ADVOCATING FOR VIOLENCE.

16-ESPIONAGE, SABOTAGE, TREASON:

17-SEARCH WARRANT: COURT ORDER AUTHORIZING A SEARCH OF A SUSPECT’S PROPERTY, HOME, PERSON.

18-PROBABLE CAUSE: REASONABLE GROUND, A GOOD BASIS FOR THE BELIEF THAT SOMETHING IS TRUE.

19-EXCLUSIONARY RULE: EVIDENCE GAINED BY ILLEGAL OR UNREASONABLE MEANS CANNOT BE USED AT THE COURT TRIAL OF THE PERSON FROM WHOM IT WAS SEIZED.

20-WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS: A PRISONER SHOULD BE BROUGHT BEFORE THE COURT TO BE CHARGED OR SHOULD BE RELEASED (2-3 DAYS). PREVENT ILLEGAL ARRESTS.

21-BAN OF BILL OF ATTAINDER: PROHIBIT LEGISLATIVE INSTITUTIONS TO PUNISH PEOPLE OR DECIDE IF A PERSON IS GUILTY OF A CRIME WITHOUT A COURT TRIAL. (SEPARATION OF POWERS.)

22-EX POST FACTO LAW: THE CONSTITUTION PROHIBITS THIS. IT IS A CRIMINAL LAW APPLIED RETROACTIVELY TO THE DISADVANTAGE OF THE ACCUSED.

23-GRAND JURY: BODY OF 12-23 PERSONS CONVENED BY A COURT TO DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO JUSTIFY BRINGING A PERSON TO TRIAL. ONLY THE PROSECUTOR IS PRESENT. ITS SESSIONS ARE NOT PUBLIC.

24-INDICTMENT: ACCUSATION OF A SERIOUS CRIME BROUGHT BEFORE A GRAND JURY AGAINST A PERSON BY THE PROSECUTOR TO OBTAIN A WARRANT FOR HIS / HER CRIMINAL TRIAL.

25-PRESENTMENT: ACCUSATION OF A SERIOUS CRIME BROUGHT BY THE GRAND JURY ON ITS ON MOTION.

26-INFORMATION: AN AFFIDAVIT IN WHICH THE PROSECUTOR SWEARS THAT THERE IS ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO JUSTIFY A TRIAL.

27-DOUBLE JEOPARDY: ONCE A PERSON HAS BEEN TRIED FOR A CRIME, HE / SHE CANNOT BE TRIED AGAIN FOR THAT SAME CRIME.

28-BENCH TRIAL: A TRIAL HELD WITHOUT A JURY. THE DEFENDANT HAS TO WAIVE HIS / HER RIGHT.

29-MIRANDA RULE: A LISTING OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS THAT SUSPECTS MUST BE ADVISED OF BEFORE POLICE QUESTIONING:

Right to remain silent

Anything that you say may be used against you in court

Right to have an attorney before questioning begins

An attorney will be appointed for you if you cannot afford one

You can bring the questioning to an end at any time.

30-PROSECUTOR / COUNSELOR:

31-JURY DUTY:

32-BAIL: MONEY THE ACCUSED MAY BE REQUIRED TO DEPOSIT WITH THE COURT AS A GUARANTEE THAT HE / SHE WILL APPEAR IN COURT AT THE PROPER TIME.

33-SEGREGATION:

34-DE JURE / DE FACTO: AS A RESULT OF SOME LAW / BECAUSE OF INDIVIDUAL OR GENERAL PRACTICE, TRADITION OR TENDENCY.

35-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION: POLICY THAT REQUIRES THAT BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS TAKE POSITIVE STEPS TO OVERCOME THE EFFECTS OF PAST DISCRIMINATION.

36-QUOTA: RULES REQUIRING CERTAIN NUMBERS OF JOBS, CONTRACTS, PROMOTIONS, SCHOLARSHIPS, ADMISSION IN UNIVERSITIES, FOR CERTAIN PEOPLE JUST BECAUSE THEY BELONG TO A MINORITY GROUP INSTEAD OF FOR THEIR PERSONAL MERITS.

37-REVERSE DISCRIMINATION:

38-JUS SOLI / JUS SANGUINIS: CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH (THE LAW OF THE SOIL OR THE LAW OF THE BLOOD)

39-NATURALIZATION: LEGAL PROCESS TO BECOME A CITIZEN OF OTHER NATION.

40-BE DECLARED IN CONTEMPT: BE CHARGED WITH DISRESPECT AND DISOBEDIENCE TO THE COURT AND / OR THE RULE OF ITS JUDGE.

41-PLEAD: ALLEGE, DECLARE.

42-ACQUIT: ABSOLVE. DISMISS: NOT EVIDENCE FOR TRIAL

43-CONVICTION: FINDING SOMEONE GUILTY.

44-FELONY: SERIOUS CRIMINAL OFFENSE

45-MISDEMEANOR: MINOR CRIMINAL OFFENSE (DRUNKENNESS, GAMBLING, RECKLESS DRIVING, LITTLE FIGHTS).

46-PROBATION: TRIAL PERIOD. PAROLE: FREE UNDER SOME CONDITIONS

47-PERJURY: LIE UNDER OATH IN COURT.

48-SUBPOENA: COURT ORDER TO A RELUCTANT WITNESS TO APPEAR IN COURT.

49-VERDICT:

50-WRIT OF MANDAMUS: A HIGHER COURT ORDER THAT FORCES A LOWER COURT OR GOVERNMENT OFFICER TO FULFILL SOME SPECIFIC PUBLIC DUTY.

51-STARE DECISIS: CITING A PRECEDENT.

52-JUDICIAL ACTIVISM / RESTRAINT: THE JUDICIARY INFLUENCE / PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL ISSUES (CONTRIBUTE WITH NEW LEGAL PRINCIPLES, INTERPRET THE LAW ACCORDING TO THE TIMES, PARTICIPATE IN THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS OR LIMIT ITS ACTIONS TO PRECEDENT AND TRADITION AND DO NOT INTERFERE WITH THE LEGISLATIVE BODIES).

53-DOCKET: LIST OF CASES TO BE HEARD.

54-BRIEFS: WRITTEN DOCUMENTS PRESENTED TO THE S.C. JUSTICES.

 

MAJOR IDEAS IN THIS UNIT

1-The federal judiciary includes the Supreme Court, which functions mainly as an appellate court; courts of appeals, which hear appeals; and district courts, which hold trials. The state court system has a similar structure and way of functioning.

2-Judicial decisions are constrained by applicable constitutional law, statutory law, and precedent. Nevertheless, political factors have a major influence on judicial appointments and decisions.

3-The judiciary has become an increasingly powerful policymaking body in recent decades.

TYPES OF FEDERAL COURTS

1-CONSTITUTIONAL OR REGULAR COURTS:

89 DISTRICT COURTS (678 JUDGES, YEAR 2007)

11 CIRCUIT COURTS OF APPEALS (179 JUDGES / PANELS OF 3)

COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE (9 JUDGES / PANELS OF 3)

2-SPECIAL OR LEGISLATIVE COURTS

COURT OF MILITARY APPEALS (3 JUDGES)

COURT OF VETERANS APPEALS (7 JUDGES)

CLAIMS COURT (16 JUDGES): Claims against the U.S.

TAX COURT (19 JUDGES)

TERRITORIAL COURTS

COURT OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

TYPES OF JURISDICTION

1-EXCLUSIVE: Cases that only can be heard by the federal courts.

2-CONCURRENT: Cases that can be heard either by a federal or a State court.

3-ORIGINAL: A court where the case is heard first.

4-APPELLATE: A court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court and may uphold, overrule, or modify the decision appealed from the lower court.

 

CASES UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL COURTS

SUBJECT MATTER:

1-The case is related to the interpretation / application of a provision in the Constitution or in any

federal statute or treaty.

2-The case is related to matters that arise on the high seas or navigable waters of the U.S. or related

in other way to maritime law.

PARTIES INVOLVED:

1-One of the parties is the federal government or one of its officers or agencies.

2-One of the parties is an ambassador, consul, or other foreign diplomat.

3-A State, a citizen of another State, or a foreign government is suing a State.

4-A citizen of one State is suing a citizen of another State.

5-An American citizen is suing a foreign government or one of its subjects.

 

THE JUDGES

1-The President appoints the federal judges and the Senate must confirm them to be approved. Some judges of the State Courts are appointed and others are elected. (Political factor).

2-Most federal judges are appointed for a life term unless resignation, retirement, or impeachment (13 in all history).

3-The judges of the Claims Court, the Veterans Appeals, and the Court of Military Appeals are appointed for 15-years terms.

4-Bankruptcy judges: 14-years terms. The judges of the Tax Court: 12-years terms.

5-Territorial court judges are appointed to 10-years terms.

6-The salary of the federal judges fluctuates from $130,000 to $170,000. State Court judges: According to level and type of court (Traffic, Juvenile, Gral.Trials, Appeals)

7-Judges may retire at age 70, and if they have serve for at least 10 years, they will receive full salary for the rest of their lives. Or, they may retire at age 65, after at least 15 years of service.

U.S. DISTRICT COURT - JUDICIAL CASELOAD PROFILE

 

12-MONTH PERIOD ENDING
SEPTEMBER 30

ALL DISTRICT COURTS

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

OVERALL
CASELOAD
STATISTICS

Filings*

335,655

335,868

330,721

358,983

328,520

344,546

Terminations

317,277

350,807

347,196

324,532

323,399

323,629

Pending

324,673

309,006

323,914

341,785

312,223

312,971

% Change in Total Filings

Over Last Year

-.1

 

 

 

 

Over Earlier Years

1.5

-6.5

2.2

-2.6

Number of Judgeships

678

678

678

679

680

665

Vacant Judgeship Months**

424.7

399.3

309.2

291.4

444.8

793.4

ACTIONS
PER
JUDGESHIP

FILINGS

Total

495

495

488

528

483

518

Civil

380

383

374

414

372

413

Criminal Felony

85

84

87

88

87

84

Supervised Release Hearings**

30

28

27

26

24

21

Pending Cases

479

456

478

503

459

471

Weighted Filings**

477

464

489

529

498

504

Terminations

468

517

512

478

476

487

Trials Completed

20

19

19

19

19

19

MEDIAN
TIMES
(months)

From Filing to Disposition

Criminal Felony

7.6

7.6

7.3

6.9

6.7

6.8

Civil**

8.6

8.3

9.5

8.5

9.3

8.7

From Filing to Trial** (Civil Only)

24.6

23.2

22.5

22.6

22.5

21.8

OTHER

Civil Cases Over 3 Years Old**

Number

17,446

27,574

39,600

35,965

34,067

34,067

Percentage

6.6

11.0

14.9

12.6

13.0

12.8

Average Number of Felony Defendants Filed Per Case

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

Jurors

Avg. Present for Jury Selection

49.32

49.61

47.36

46.33

47.81

45.54

Percent Not Selected or Challenged

37.3

38.1

36.7

36.8

40.0

39.3

 

2007 CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FELONY FILINGS BY NATURE OF SUIT AND OFFENSE

Type of

TOTAL

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

Civil

257507

12974

36469

53945

3794

5180

18674

33939

24890

10783

31756

1038

24065

Criminal*

57172

4120

11560

16593

8212

6854

1987

2446

808

1426

822

769

1575

 

 

U.S. COURT OF APPEALS - JUDICIAL CASELOAD PROFILE

 

12-MONTH PERIOD ENDING SEPTEMBER 30

NATIONAL TOTALS

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

OVERALL
CASELOAD
STATISTICS

Appeals Filed

Total

58,410

66,618

68,473

62,762

60,847

57,555

Prisoner

15,472

16,776

17,034

16,561

17,691

18,272

Other**

19,389

21,494

21,666

21,440

21,200

21,925

Criminal

13,167

15,246

16,060

12,506

11,968

11,569

Administrative

10,382

13,102

13,713

12,255

9,988

5,789

% Change in Total Filings

Over Last Year

-12.3

 

 

 

 

Over Earlier Years

-14.7

-6.9

-4.0

1.5

Appeals Terminated

Total

62,846

67,582

61,975

56,381

56,396

56,586

Consolidations & Cross Appeals

2,374

2,356

2,317

2,108

2,108

2,721

Procedural

28,755

30,646

29,745

26,835

27,279

26,107

On The Merits

Total

31,717

34,580

29,913

27,438

27,009

27,758

Prisoner

4,068

4,277

4,435

4,520

5,259

5,341

Other

11,190

12,881

12,443

11,402

11,807

13,065

Criminal

10,393

10,990

8,614

7,559

8,078

7,978

Administrative

6,066

6,432

4,421

3,957

1,865

1,374

Percent by Active Judges

75.9

77.8

77.4

78.0

78.0

77.1

Pending Appeals

51,742

56,486

57,724

51,071

44,600

40,965

ACTIONS
PER
ACTIVE
JUDGE*

Terminations on the Merits

481

539

457

432

459

485

Procedural Terminations

168

172

170

167

185

191

Written Decisions

Total

164

183

154

144

154

165

Signed

55

64

52

47

51

51

Unsigned

104

113

97

93

98

106

Without Comment

5

6

5

4

5

8

 

SALARIES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS & JUDGES

Year

Senators

Members of the House

Circuit Judges

District Judges

Associate Justices

Chief Justice

2008

$169,300

$169,300

$179,500

$169,300

$208,100

$217,400

2007

$165,200

$165,200

$175,100

$165,200

$203,000

$212,100

2006

$165,200

$165,200

$175,100

$165,200

$203,000

$212,100

2005

$162,100

$162,100

$171,800

$162,100

$199,200

$208,100

2004

$158,100

$158,100

$167,600

$158,100

$194,300

$203,000

2003

$154,700

$154,700

$164,000

$154,700

$190,100

$198,600

2002

$150,000

$150,000

$159,100

$150,000

$184,400

$192,600

2001

$145,100

$145,100

$153,900

$145,100

$178,300

$186,300

2000

$141,300

$141,300

$149,900

$141,300

$173,600

$181,400

 

FEDERAL COURT OFFICERS

1-THE CLERK: The seal, records, order, etc.

1.1-Bailiffs

1.2-Stenographers

2-MAGISTRATE: Issues warrants, set bails, decides about summoning a grand jury, tries cases of misdemeanor. (8-years term)

3-DISTRICT ATTORNEY: Prosecution of all persons charged with federal crimes. They represent the U.S. (4-years term). Under the Department of Justice.

4-U.S. MARSHALS: Make arrests in federal criminal cases, secure jurors, etc. (4-years term). Under the Department of Justice. (Sheriff in State Courts)

 

THE SUPREME COURT (SEE  LANDMARK CASES)

9 JUSTICES; LIFE TERM


Front: Anthony Kennedy (88), John Stevens (75), Chief John Roberts (05), Anthony Scalia (86), and David Souter (90)
Back: Stephen Breyer (94), Clarence Thomas (91), Ruth Ginsburg (93), and Samuel Alito (06).


Breyer(L), Scalia(C), Alito (C), Stevens (L), Souter (L), Chief Roberts (C), Kennedy (C), Thomas (C), Ginsburg (L)

1-ORIGINAL AND APPELLATE JURISDICTION.

2-SOME 4-5 THOUSAND CASES ARE APPEALED TO THE SUPREME COURT EACH YEAR.

3-THE WRIT OF CERTIORARI (REVIEW) AND CERTIFICATE (ADVISE).

4-THE RULE OF FOUR: At least 4 Justices must agree to put the case in the docket.

5-BRIEFS & AMICUS CURIAE BRIEFS, ORAL ARGUMENTS, THE CONFERENCE, THE DECISION.

6-THE OPINION:

MAJORITY (The opinion of the court, its final decision),

CONCURRING (judges that agree with the general decision of the court, but want to emphasize some point or express some minor disagreement),

DISSENTING (judges who voted against the majority).

7-THE COURT DECIDES ON ABOUT 120 CASES A YEAR.

8-Historic Supreme Court Decisions

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803): For the first time, the Supreme Court declares an act of Congress unconstitutional, declaring, "A law repugnant to the Constitution is void." Judicial Review is established.

Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824): The court establishes the principle that when federal and state laws conflict, federal law is supreme.

Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1856): The Supreme Court rules that African Americans, slave or free, were not citizens of the United States and were not entitled to sue in federal court.

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896): By a vote of 8-1, the court ruled that a Louisiana law requiring African Americans and whites to use separate railroad cars did not deprive African Americans of equal protection under the 14th Amendment. The ruling gives judicial sanction to the doctrine of "separate but equal."

Korematsu v. United States, 319 U.S. 432 (1943): By a 6-3 vote, the court upheld the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans. Individual Liberties could be overturned in the interest of national defense during wartime.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954): The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, overturning the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision that allowed for "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.

Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962): The court forbids non-denominational prayer in public schools, ruling that the Constitution prohibits government from "endorsing religion in general." The court ruled that a prayer read in New York State schools violated the constitutional separation of church and state.

New York Times Co.. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964): The Supreme Court ruled that public figures have a higher burden of proof in a libel case than private citizens, and must prove that a libelous statement is published with malicious intent and in reckless disregard for the truth.

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966): By a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court ruled that truck driver Ernesto Miranda, who confessed to abducting and raping an 18-year-old girl, should have been informed by the police of his right to remain silent and to consult with an attorney.

Tinker v. Des Moines, 393 U.S. 503 (1969): The court overturned the suspension of students who had worn black arm bands to protest the Vietnam war, declaring that students do not "shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.

New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971): By a 6-3 vote the court denied the government's request for a court order barring publication of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam War. The court said there was insufficient.

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973): The Supreme Court invalidated a Texas law prohibiting abortion except to save a mother's life. Justice Harry Blackmun wrote that the 14th Amendment "protects against state action the right to privacy, including a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy."

United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974): The court orders President Richard Nixon to turn over to a special prosecutor subpoenaed tapes relating to the Watergate break-in.

Texas v. Johnson (1989): "If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable. . . ."

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978): "…Race or ethnic background may be deemed a "plus" in a particular applicant's file, yet it does not insulate the individual from comparison with all other candidates for the available seats." The Supreme Court prohibits the use of quotas in the application of Affirmative Action.

Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990): The Supreme Court accepts the right to die, to withdraw Nancy Cruzan, the daughter of Lester and Joyce Cruzan, from artificial feeding and hydration equipment after it became apparent that she had virtually no chance of recovering her cognitive faculties.

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002): In a 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that private school tuition voucher programs are constitutional and do not violate the separation of church and state provision of the First Amendment.

Lawrence and Garner v. Texas, Case no. 02-0102 (2003): The 6-3 decision by the court reverses course from a ruling 17 years ago in Bowers v. Hardwick that states could punish homosexuals for what such laws historically called deviant sex.

Grutter v. Bollinger, Case no. 02-0241 and Gratz v. Bollinger, case no. 02-0516, (2003): Supreme Court ruled that race can be a factor for universities shaping their admissions programs, saying a broad social value may be gained from diversity in the classroom. Endorsement of the constitutionality of affirmative action.

ALA vs. U.S., Case no. 01-1303 (2003): According to the Children's Internet Protection Act, schools and public libraries should adopt both an Internet Safety Policy and a "technology protection measure" for computers with Internet access. The Supreme Court in a 6-3 decision held that public libraries must purchase filtering software and comply with all portions of CIPA.

 

2007 Crime Clock

DEATH PENALTY

TYPES OF EXECUTIONS & DEATH PENALTY DATA IN THE U.S. (YEAR 2000):
 Lethal Injection, Electrocution, Hanging, Firing Squad, and Lethal Gas (See symbols for each State)
Convicts in Death Row / Executed (Since 1976): See numbers for each State

Data for Year 2007

AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP

1-BY BIRTH: JUS SOLI & JUS SANGUINIS

2-BY NATURALIZATION: INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE . THE LEGAL PROCESS: 5 YEARS OF LEGAL RESIDENCE, APPLICATION, TEST, INTERVIEW, THE OATH. (SCHOOL COURSES, VIDEOS, ETC.)

a-IMMIGRATION TO THE U.S. (DIFFERENT WAVES, PRESENT POLICIES).

b-UNDOCUMENTED ALIENS: 10 MILLIONS. DEPORTATION.

c-DENATURALIZATION.



6-State and Local Government.

Objectives

1-Evaluate the structure and function of state and local government (II C).

2-Discuss problems faced by state and local government (II E).

3-Evaluate the sources of revenue and expenditures of state and local government (IV A).

 

VOCABULARY

1-INITIATIVE: PETITION PROCESS BY WHICH A CERTAIN PERCENTAGE OF VOTERS CAN PUT A PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT OR STATUTE ON THE BALLOT FOR POPULAR APPROVAL OR REJECTION.

2-REFERENDUM: PROCESS IN WHICH A MEASURE PASSED BY A LEGISLATURE IS SUBMITTED TO THE VOTERS FOR FINAL APPROVAL OR REJECTION.

3-COUNTY : A MAJOR UNIT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN MOST STATES.

4-PARISH: THE LOUISIANA TERM FOR COUNTIES.

5-BOROUGH: THE ALASKA TERM FOR COUNTIES. IN SOME OTHER STATES A SMALL TOWN OR VILLAGE.

6-TOWNSHIP / CITY / MUNICIPALITY: A TERM USED FOR A SUBDIVISION OF A COUNTY IN MANY STATES.

7-SPECIAL DISTRICT: LOCAL UNIT OF GOVERNMENT, CREATED TO PERFORM A SINGLE PUBLIC FUNCTION IN A LOCALE (SCHOOL, ELECTIONS, JUDICIAL JURISDICTION).

8-ZONING: PRACTICE OF DIVIDING A CITY INTO ZONES AND REGULATING BY LAW (ZONING ORDINANCE) THE USE OF LAND IN EACH ZONE (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL, RECREATIONAL, RESIDENTIAL, SCHOOL ZONE).

9-METROPOLITAN AREA: TERM FOR THE LARGE CITIES AND THE SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES (SUBURBS)

10-URBANIZATION: PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION OF A STATE LIVING IN CITIES OF MORE THAN  50,000.

11-COUNCIL / BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS: THE CITY GOVERNMENT ELECTED POLICY-MAKING BODY.

12-ORDINANCE: A LAW PASSED BY THE GOVERNING BODY OF A CITY OR TOWN.

 

MAJOR IDEAS IN THIS UNIT

1-ALL STATES APPLY THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS, BUT THE STATES DIFFER IN THE WAY THEY STRUCTURE THEIR GOVERNMENTS.

2-LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ARE NOT SOVEREIGN; THEY ARE CHARTERED BY THEIR STATE GOVERNMENT, WHICH SETS THE LIMITS OF THEIR POWER.

3-STATES AND LOCALITIES HAVE PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOST OF THE POLICIES, SUCH AS PUBLIC EDUCATION, THAT DIRECTLY TOUCH AMERICANS’ DAILY LIVES.

 

STATE CONSTITUTIONS & LEGISLATURES

1-STATES CONSTITUTIONS HAVE BEEN AMENDED AND CHANGED A LOT SINCE 1776 (150 IN THE NATION: 3 BY STATE AS AN AVERAGE). THEY ARE VERY LONG DOCUMENTS BECAUSE THEY MUST INCLUDE A LOT OF DETAILS LIKE THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS’ ORGANIZATION, THE ELECTIONS, MARRIAGES & DIVORCES, AND TAXES. MOST OF THEM PROVIDE FOR THREE SEPARATE BRANCHES OF STATE GOVERNMENT AND A BILL OF RIGHTS.

2-49 STATES HAVE BICAMERAL LEGISLATURES (EXCEPT NEBRASKA). IN MOST OF THE STATES, THE AVERAGE UPPER HOUSE HAS 30-50 MEMBERS (SENATORS) WHILE THE AVERAGE LOWER HOUSE HAS 100-150 MEMBERS (REPRESENTATIVES).

3-QUALIFICATIONS DO VARY FROM STATE TO STATE: SENATORS 25 YEARS OLD, REPRESENTATIVES 21 YEARS OLD.

4-VOTERS ELECT THEIR LEGISLATORS. CANDIDATES ARE NOMINATED AT PARTY PRIMARIES.

5-TERMS ARE OF 2-4 YEARS. THE RATE OF TURNOVER IS LOW (25%).

6-SALARIES ARE LOW. POLITICAL INFLUENCE.

7-STRUCTURE, POWERS, LEGISLATIVE PROCESS: SIMILAR TO CONGRESS.

8-DIRECT LEGISLATION: INITIATIVE & REFERENDUM

2007 State Tax Collection by Source (Percentage of Total) 

 

Property

Sales

Individual Income

Corporate Income

Other

Alabama

3.1

25.7

34.0

5.7

7.7

Alaska

1.9

--

--

23.6

68.1

Arizona

3.5

45.9

25.8

8.0

3.6

Arkansas

8.6

39.3

29.3

4.9

5.0

California

2.0

28.5

46.5

9.7

6.6

Colorado

--

24.1

52.1

5.2

5.2

Connecticut

--

23.6

49.3

6.4

5.6

Delaware

--

--

35.3

10.4

38.5

Florida

0.1

60.9

--

6.8

16.0

Georgia

0.4

34.2

47.2

5.5

2.8

Hawaii

--

50.2

30.6

2.0

4.0

Idaho

--

36.1

39.8

5.3

7.7

Ilinois

0.2

26.5

31.9

9.9

9.5

Indiana

0.0

38.5

32.7

7.0

5.2

Iowa

--

27.6

41.2

5.0

11.0

Kansas

1.1

32.5

39.8

7.7

7.1

Kentucky

5.0

28.5

30.7

10.0

7.9

Louisiana

0.4

32.1

29.6

6.9

13.6

Maine

1.0

29.5

37.9

5.1

8.7

Maryland

3.9

22.8

44.2

5.2

8.1

Massachusetts

0.0

19.7

55.2

10.2

5.6

Michigan

9.7

33.5

27.0

7.5

7.1

Minnesota

3.8

25.1

40.7

6.7

7.8

Mississippi

0.7

49.3

21.9

5.8

7.5

Missouri

0.2

30.6

45.2

3.6

6.0

Montana

8.7

--

35.9

7.7

24.8

Nebraska

0.1

36.5

40.6

5.2

6.2

Nevada

2.9

51.0

--

--

15.8

New Hampshire

17.7

--

4.9

27.4

16.1

New Jersey

0.0

28.7

39.6

9.9

9.4

New Mexico

1.1

35.4

22.1

8.2

20.9

New York

--

17.2

54.7

8.6

5.8

North Carolina

--

23.0

46.8

6.9

7.0

North Dakota

0.1

27.2

17.8

7.7

29.1

Ohio

0.1

31.4

40.4

5.3

8.9

Oklahoma

--

22.1

38.3

6.3

22.4

Oregon

0.3

--

72.3

5.2

12.1

Pennsylvania

0.2

28.1

31.8

7.4

13.6

Rhode Island

0.1

31.7

39.2

6.5

5.2

South Carolina

0.1

37.2

37.3

3.6

6.3

South Dakota

--

56.6

--

6.1

12.8

Tennessee

--

59.6

2.0

9.9

14.5

Texas

--

50.7

--

--

21.1

Utah

--

33.2

43.5

6.8

5.2

Vermont

34.7

13.1

22.7

3.3

6.3

Virginia

0.1

18.7

54.0

6.8

7.5

Washington

9.5

61.4

--

--

12.2

West Virginia

0.1

24.3

29.2

11.6

11.2

Wisconsin

0.8

28.7

43.7

6.4

7.4

Wyoming

13.2

34.5

--

--

46.1

United States

1.6

31.5

35.4

7.1

9.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

THE GOVERNOR AND THE STATE ADMINISTRATION

1-THE GOVERNOR MUST HAS 25-30 YEARS OF AGE.

2-HE / SHE IS CHOSEN BY POPULAR VOTE. IN 46 STATES ONLY PLURALITY IS NEEDED FOR ELECTION.

3-MOST STATES HAVE A 4-YEARS TERM (ONLY 3 HAVE 2-YEARS TERM).

4-THE LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF TERMS VARY: 2 STATES=1 TERM, 27 STATES=2.

5-SALARY: AN AVERAGE OF $81,000. SEE TABLE IN CLASS.

6-ROLES & POWERS: SIMILAR TO THE PRESIDENT’S, BUT AT STATE SCALE.

7-OTHER EXECUTIVE OFFICERS:

THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR

THE SECRETARY OF STATE (The State’s Chief Clerk & Record-Keeper)

THE TREASURER

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL

Info for 2008

STATE COURT SYSTEM & STATE JUDGES

1-JUSTICES OF THE PEACE:.

2-MAGISTRATES’ COURTS:

3-MUNICIPAL COURTS:

4-JUVENILE COURTS:

5-GENERAL TRIAL COURTS

6-STATE COURTS OF APPEALS

7-STATE SUPREME COURT

 

JUDGES:

POPULAR ELECTION

APPOINTMENT BY THE GOVERNOR

APPOINTMENT BY THE LEGISLATURE

COMBINATION (MISSOURI PLAN)

 

 

Text Box: State Judges & Judicial Workers.
 2006-16

 

Occupational title

 

Employment, 2006

Projected
employment,
2016

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers (Total)

51,000

53,000

 

a-Administrative law judges, adjudicators, and hearing officers

15,000

15,000

 

b-Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators

8,500

9,400

 

c-Judges and magistrates

27,000

29,000

 

 

COUNTIES IN FLORIDA: 67


THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT

1-THE COUNTY - CITY ORGANIZATION.

2-ELECTED OFFICIALS: COUNCIL MEMBERS / COMMISSIONERS, THE MAYOR, JUDGES, THE SCHOOL BOARD.

3-THE MANAGER / ADMINISTRATOR & THE DEPARTMENTS.

4-OTHER KEY LOCAL OFFICIALS:

THE SHERIFF: POLICE DEPARTMENT, JAIL.

THE CLERK: REGISTER AND RECORDS (DEEDS, BIRTH / DEATH, MARRIAGE / DIVORCE) AND ELECTIONS.

THE ASSESSOR: APPRAISE TAXABLE PROPERTY.

TREASURER: BILLS AND PAYMENTS

THE AUDITOR: FINANCIAL RECORDS

DISTRICT ATTORNEY: CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS, PROSECUTION, LEGAL ADVICE

THE CORONER: INVESTIGATE VIOLENT DEATHS AND CERTIFY THE CAUSES

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS

5-FORMS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

-STRONG MAYOR-COUNCIL PLAN (Mayor appoints and leads the department heads)

-WEAK MAYOR-COUNCIL PLAN (Council appoints and control the department heads)

-COMMISSION FORM (commissioners act as department heads themselves. No Mayor). Very rare today.

-COUNCIL-MANAGER FORM (The Council hires a professional manager to control the departments)

-MAYOR-MANAGER FORM (The Mayor has the power to hire the county / city manager)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT WORK

1-ZONING

2-THE SCHOOL SYSTEM

3-PUBLIC SAFETY (POLICE, FIRE, RESCUE)

4-PUBLIC PARKS, ZOOS, SEAQUARIUM

5-WATER & SEWER

6-GARBAGE COLLECTION

7-TRANSPORT (BUS, METRO RAIL, SUBWAY, AIRPORT)

8-BUILD & MAINTAIN THE STREETS, BRIDGES, ETC.

9-PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM

10-TRAFFIC

11-SPORT ARENAS, PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS

12-PUBLIC HOUSING (HOMELESS)

13-PORT / DOCK

14-ADMINISTER PUBLIC WELFARE PROGRAMS (STATE / FEDERAL)

15-REGULATE AND CONTROL BUSINESS (POLLUTION, SANITATION)

16-TAXES


REVENUES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS:

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS SPENDING:



7-The Political World Today. The Future of the American Government.

Objectives

1-Explain how the U.S. immigration policy has changed overtime (V B).

2-Describe the government regulations that relate to immigrants (V B).

3-Differentiate among the major forms of government in the world today (VI A).

4-Compare the structure and functions of American democracy with other forms of government (VI A).

5-Analyze the problem facing the U.S. in dealing with various foreign powers (VI B).

6-Explain how transnational economic activities have impacted foreign policy (VI B).

7-Analyze how decisions made in the U.S. have consequences for people in other parts of the world and vice versa.

8-Evaluate the extent to which local and national issues are related to world issues (VI B).

9-Assess the effectiveness of unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral approaches in dealing with contemporary global issues. (VI B).

10-Describe how domestic issues are affected by international occurrences and events (VI B).

11-Interpret changes that have occurred in the economic, political, and social systems of western and non-western societies (VI C).

12-Discuss the interdependence of world regions and their historical, cultural, economic, and political characteristics (VI C).

13-Examine the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the work of world organizations like Amnesty International, UNESCO, Freedom House (VI C).


VOCABULARY

1-CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY:

2-NATIONAL DIET / PARLIAMENT / CONGRESS / DUMA / NATIONAL ASSEMBLY / CORTES:

3-HOUSE OF LORDS: AN ARISTOCRATIC BODY WITH 1,100 MEMBER. 750 HOLD NOBLE TITLES. THE OTHERS ARE APPOINTED FOR LIFE BY THE QUEEN ( BISHOPS, LAW LORDS, AND 350 LIFE PEERS). IT HAS MINIMUM LEGISLATIVE POWERS AND ACTS AS A SUPREME COURT.

4-LIFE PEERS: LORDS WHO HAVE BEEN HONORED FOR THEIR CAREERS IN SCIENCE, LITERATURE, THE ARTS, POLITICS, AND BUSINESS.

5-HOUSE OF COMMONS: REPRESENTATIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BODY.

6-PERESTROIKA: ECONOMIC REFORMS IN THE SOVIET UNION TO MOVE TO A MARKET ECONOMY

7-GLASNOST: POLITICAL AND LEGAL CHANGES TO ALLOW FREEDOM OF SPEECH, FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, AND  A MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM IN THE SOVIET UNION

8-FUTURE SHOCK: THE ACCELERATING RATE OF CHANGE AND THE STRESS IT CAUSES IN SOCIETY.

 

SOME MAJOR IDEAS

1-SINCE WW II, THE U.S. HAS ACTED IN THE ROLE OF WORLD LEADER.

2-CHANGES IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETPLACE HAVE LED TO INCREASED ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG NATIONS.

3-THE U.S. BECAME THE ONLY WORLD SUPER POWER AFTER THE FALL OF COMMUNISM IN EUROPE.

4-MULTI-ETHNIC AND MULTI-CULTURAL SOCIETIES, TOLERANCE, GLOBAL INTERCHANGE, VERY FAST TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES, ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS, TERRORISM, AND HUMAN RIGHTS ARE SOME OF THE MAJOR ISSUES OF THE 21st. CENTURY.

 

STAGES IN WORLD POLITICAL HISTORY

1-ANCIENT EMPIRES (EGYPTIAN, PERSIAN, GREEK, ROMAN)

2-MEDIEVAL ASIAN EMPIRES (BYZANTINE, ISLAMIC, MONGOL)

3-EUROPEAN KINGDOMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES

4-FORMATION OF NATIONAL MONARCHIES: 11-15 CENTURIES

5-COLONIALISM & SLAVERY (AMERICA, AFRICA): 15-19 CENTURIES

6-INDEPENDENTISM (U.S. & LATIN AMERICA): 18-19th. CENTURY

7-REPUBLICANISM (FRANCE, AMERICA): 18-19th. CENTURIES

8-IMPERIALISM: AFRICA & ASIA. WW I.

9- THE TOTALITARIAN SYSTEMS: WW II.

10-THE COLD WAR: CAPITALISM vs. COMMUNISM. THE THIRD WORLD AS A BATTLE FIELD. SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. NEO-COLONIALISM. INDEPENDENTISM IN AFRICA & NATIONALISM IN LATIN AMERICA

11-THE NEW GLOBAL ORDER.

FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

1-UNITARY GOVERNMENT: A CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT IN WHICH ALL POWERS BELONG TO THE CORE OR CENTRAL AUTHORITY. LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT ONLY EXIST TO FACILITATE THE RULE OF THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY (MOST OF TODAY NATIONS).

2-FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT ARE DIVIDED BETWEEN THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (U.S.).

3-CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT: THE CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT HAS THE POWER TO HANDLE ONLY THOSE MATTERS THAT THE INDEPENDENT-MEMBER STATES HAVE ASSIGNED TO IT: DEFENSE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE. THE STATES COOPERATE IN SOME MATTERS OF COMMON CONCERN BUT RETAIN THEIR SEPARATE IDENTITIES (THE U.S. BEFORE THE CONSTITUTION, THE SOVIET UNION AFTER 1991).

4-PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT: A GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXISTS A SEPARATION OF POWERS BETWEEN THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF THE GOVERNMENT. THE ARE INDEPENDENT AND COEQUAL. (U.S.)

5-PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT: THE EXECUTIVE POWER IS MADE UP OF THE LEGISLATIVE. THE PRIME MINISTER / PREMIER IS THE LEADER OF THE MAJORITY PARTY IN PARLIAMENT, THE MEMBERS OF THE CABINET ARE MEMBERS OF THE PARLIAMENT. THE EXECUTIVE IS PART AND IS SUBJECT TO THE CONTROL OF THE LEGISLATURE.

6-DICTATORSHIP

7-DEMOCRACY

a-DIRECT DEMOCRACY OR PURE DEMOCRACY: THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE IS TRANSLATED INTO PUBLIC POLICY DIRECTLY, IN MASS MEETINGS (SMALL TOWNS IN NEW ENGLAND & SWISS CANTONS).

b-REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: A SMALL GROUP OF PERSONS CHOSEN BY THE PEOPLE ACT AS THEIR REPRESENTATIVES AND EXPRESS THE POPULAR WILL CONDUCTING THE DAY-TO-DAY MATTERS OF GOVERNMENT.

8-MONARCHY vs. REPUBLIC: KING AND SUBJECTS (DIVINE RIGHTS) vs. PRESIDENT AND CITIZENS (ELECTORAL SYSTEM).

DIFFERENT POLITICAL SYSTEMS

STRUCTURE / ORGANIZATION:

1-REPUBLIC: PRESIDENT & CITIZENS (U.S., FRANCE, LATIN AMERICAN) NATIONS.

2-CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: KING & SUBJECTS (G.B. , JAPAN, SPAIN, SWEDEN, NORWAY).

3-CONFEDERATION: COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES (EX-SOVIET UNION) AND SWITZERLAND.

POLITICAL CONTENT:

1-REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: U.S., FRANCE, G.B..

2-SOCIAL DEMOCRACY: SPAIN, SWEDEN, HOLLAND, DENMARK, CANADA, MEXICO. (NATIONALIZATION, TAXATION, PUBLIC SERVICES AND WELFARE).

3-COMMUNISM: CHINA, VIETNAM, CUBA. (COMMAND ECONOMY, THE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT. ONLY ONE PARTY. THE LABOR THEORY OF LABOR. THE MARXIAN VIEW OF HISTORY: ECONOMY AND THE CLASS STRUGGLE. RELIGION AS “THE OPIATE OF THE PEOPLE”. COLLECTIVIZATION vs INDIVIDUALISM. )

 

REAL DEMOCRACY

MULTIPLE POLITICAL PARTIES & FREE ELECTIONS

STATE OF LAW

HUMAN RIGHTS

 

THE NEW GLOBAL ORDER

1-STRONGER INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS.

2-FREE TRADE. ALLIANCES.

3-GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS: SATELLITES, INTERNET, FAX, MEDIA.

4-HUMAN MOBILITY: TOURISM & IMMIGRATION. FREE LABOR MARKET.

5-AIDS AND OTHER EPIDEMIC DISEASES.

6-ORGANIZED CRIME, TERRORISM, AND DRUGS. ENFORCE A GLOBAL LAW SYSTEM.

7-THE COMMON ENVIRONMENT: ONLY ONE EARTH.

8-THE PROBLEM OF THE ENERGETIC RESOURCES.

9-THE CONQUEST OF THE OUTER SPACE.

10-EDUCATION AS A LIFELONG PROCESS (THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN).

11-SUPERCITIES.

12-A BIGGER GAP BETWEEN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS.

++++WHAT HAPPENS IN ONE PLACE AFFECTS THE WHOLE PLANET++++

THE WORLD TODAY

PESSIMISTIC vs OPTIMISTIC VIEW OF THE FUTURE

OPTIMISTIC:

1-MORE HUMAN AND PROSPEROUS SOCIETY

2-TOLERANCE AND COEXISTENCE

3-INCREASING LIFE EXPECTANCY AND IMPROVING QUALITY OF LIFE

4-SOLUTION TO ENERGETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

PESSIMISTIC:

1-GREATER AND MORE POWERFUL GOVERNMENTS & LESS INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS.

2-CROWDED AND POORER INNER CITIES. HIGHER CRIME RATES.

3-SCARCITY AND HUNGER. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM.

4-MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENCE WILL INCREASE.

5-PRESENT SOCIAL VALUES WILL DISAPPEAR (FAMILY, CHURCH, MORAL CODES).

6-GIANT CORPORATIONS WILL CONTROL THE WORLD.

7-PROBLEMS IN THE THIRD WORLD AND THE GENERALIZATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS WILL ORIGINATE WW III.