AMERICAN HISTORY

Note: The definitions of key words (Vocabulary) were taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The info for the Domestic & Foreign Policies of each of the American presidents came from The Miller Center of the University of Virginia. Some of the charts at the beginning of each topic / unit and some political cartoons are from the book "Gateway to U.S. History. The Bridge to Success on the Florida's EOC Test". The History Flow Charts were create by Chris Butler. The recommended videos are in YouTube, Annenberg, Crash Course, Education Portal / Study.com, The Century: America's Time, and American Visions: The History of American Art & ArchitectureThe results of the presidential elections are from  Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections  

Thanks to them for the info!

Second Nine Weeks

1-American Imperialism
2-World War I: 1914-1918.
3-The Roaring Twenties.
4-The Great Depression: 1929-1940.

Third Nine Weeks

5-World War II: 1939-1945.
6-The Cold War: 1945-1991. Truman - Clinton
6.1-African Americans & Civil Rights
6.2-Race and Gender in America: A Summary

Fourth Nine Weeks

7-The World Today: Issues of the 21st. Century. Bush II - Obama
    8-Review for E.O.C.

 


In addition to my study guides listed above, please review these other websites:
 
Horace Greeley HS, New York, Ms. Susan Pojer
Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center 
APStudent.com 


1-American Imperialism (1865-1916)

Topic 4:  U.S. IMPERIALISM                                                                                                                                         Pacing:  Traditional:  10 Days   Block: 5 Days

Essential Questions:
What were the major factors that contributed to the United States Imperialistic movement?
What motivations and justifications explain U.S. expansion between the Civil War and World War I?
How did the United States expand its influence globally during this time period?
                                                                                                                                                                     

 

Strand(s) and Standard(s)

American History
(Standard 1:  Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 4:  Demonstrate an understanding of the changing role of the United States in world affairs through the end of World War I.)

Geography (Standard 1:  Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2:  Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4:  Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)

Humanities (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3:  Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.A.4.1 Analyze the major factors that drove United States imperialism.

SS.912.A.4.2 Explain the motives of the United States acquisition of the territories.

SS.912.A.4.3 Examine causes, course, and consequences of the Spanish American War.

SS.912.A.4.4 Analyze the economic, military, and security motivations of the United States to complete the Panama Canal as well as major obstacles involved in its construction.

Essential Content:

•MOTIVES FOR U.S. EXPANSIONISM IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

o    The “New Imperialism”

o    Economic Incentives: Raw Materials & New Markets

o    Alfred T. Mahan’s Theory on the Importance of Naval Power

o    The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

o    Rudyard Kipling & “The White Man’s Burden”

o    Social Darwinism

o    The Closing of the Frontier

o    Desire to Build an Overseas Empire

•THE UNITED STATES EXPANDS BEYOND ITS BORDERS

o    Annexation of Alaska, Hawaii, Samoa, & Guam

o    The U.S. Expands Its Control Over the Caribbean

o    Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine & “Big Stick Diplomacy”

o    Open Door Policy & China

 •SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898)

o    General Causes

o    Role of the U.S. Media: Yellow Journalism

o    Sinking of the  U.S.S. Maine

o    The Teller Resolution

o    Main Events of the War

o    Teddy Roosevelt & the Rough Riders

o    Dewey Defeats the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines

o    Terms of the Treaty of Paris (1898)

o    Cuba  Becomes a U.S. Protectorate

o    The Platt Amendment

o    Puerto Rico, Guam, & the Philippines Become U.S. Territories

 •U.S. CONSTRUCTION OF THE PANAMA CANAL

o    Motivations & Obstacles

o    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

 •OPPOSITION TO U.S. IMPERIALISM:  The Anti-Imperialist League

Content Focus:

Annexation, “White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling), jingoism, rough riders, protectorate, Dollar Diplomacy, Moral Diplomacy, Teller Resolution, missionary, big stick, expansionism, imperialism, Open Door policy, Panama Canal, Philippines, Platt Amendment, Roosevelt Corollary, Spanish- American War, Treaty of Portsmouth (1905), yellow fever, yellow press/yellow journalism, Monroe Doctrine.

 


 

Free Videos

YouTube

The Spanish American War...8 min
The Panama Canal: Against All Odds...10 min
Rough Riders...10 min
American Interventions in Latin America...12 min
Big Stick Diplomacy...3 min
The Great White Fleet...5 min
Dollar Diplomacy...2 min
Theodore Roosevelt...4 min
 

Crash Course

American Imperialism: Crash Course US History #28

Study.com

American Imperialism (1890-1919)


The Century, America's Time: Seeds Of Change …1-3

The Century, America's Time: Seeds Of Change …2-3

The Century, America's Time: Seeds Of Change …3-3


Timeline 1900 -1915

1898 and 1900- The Boxer Rebellion in China, against the presence of foreign invaders from Europe & Japan. The US sent 2 warships and 3,500 soldiers to help crash the rebellion.

1901- Big Stick Policy: "speak softly, and carry a big stick." Roosevelt first used the phrase in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair on September 2, 1901

1901 – President McKinley assassinated, Teddy Roosevelt now 26th President

1901- The Platt Amendment, amended a treaty between the US and Cuba after the Spanish–American War virtually made Cuba a U.S. protectorate. The amendment outlined conditions for the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs and permitted the United States to lease or buy lands for the purpose of the establishing naval bases, including Guantánamo Bay.

1903- U.S. promoted / supported the independence of Panama from Colombia in order to build the Panama Canal; Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty

1903-04- U.S. occupation of the (former Spanish colony) Dominican Republic. Another intervention in 1916-26

1903- U.S. intervention in Honduras. Again in 1907, 1911-12.

1904 –When European governments began to use force to pressure Latin American countries to repay their debts Theodore Roosevelt announced his "Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States would intervene in the Western Hemisphere should Latin American governments prove incapable or unstable.

1906 – Muckraker – writers who expose big business corruption

1906-1909- U.S. governed Cuba under Governor Charles Magoon. Another intervention in 1912.

1906 – Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection – set food quality standards

1906 – Panama Canal – connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (opens in 1914)

1907-1909- The White Fleet completed a circumnavigation of the globe.

1908 – Henry Ford introduces the Model T car, assembly lines introduced

1909: U.S.-backed rebels in Nicaragua depose President José Santos Zelaya.

1913 – 16th Amendment – establishment of income tax, 17th Amend.– direct election of senators

1914 – World War I begins in Europe

1914-17- Mexico conflict and Pancho Villa Expedition, U.S. troops entering northern portion of Mexico.

1915-34- United States occupation of Haiti

1918-20- The American Expeditionary Force Siberia was a United States Army force that was involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russian Empire, during the end of World War I after the October Revolution. One major reason was to rescue the 40,000 men of the Czechoslovak Legions, who were being held up by Bolshevik forces as they attempted to make their way along the Trans-Siberian Railroad to Vladivostok. Another major reason was to protect the large quantities of military supplies and railroad rolling stock that the United States had sent to the Russian Far East in support of the prior Russian government's war efforts on the Eastern Front. And a key reason was to support the White Army against the Red Army. Concurrently and for similar reasons, about 5,000 American soldiers were sent to Archangel, Russia by Wilson as part of the separate Polar Bear Expedition.

1923-28- United States occupation of Nicaragua: Marines occupied main cities, Their purpose was to provide stabilization to the government. There was a period of a few months between 1925 and 1926 when the Marines left but were back for the same reason.


Literature

King Solomon's Mines, by H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925)

Joseph Conrad (1857-1924)
Nostromo:  A Tale of the Seaboard, 1904
Lord Jim,
1900
Heart of Darkness,
1899

The Rough Riders, by Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919)

The Imperialist, 1904, by Sara Jeannette Duncan (1861- 1922)

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)
The Jungle Book
, 1894

The Seven Seas, 1896
Captains Courageous,
1897
Kim
, 1901
Just So Stories,
1902

George Orwell (1903-1950)
Burmese Days,
1934
Shooting an
Elephant, 1936

The Quiet American, by Graham Greene (1904-91)

The Colonizer and the Colonized, by Albert Memmi (1920)

A Young People′s History of the United States, by Howard Zinn (1922-2010)

The Wretched of the Earth, by Frantz Fanon (1925-61)

Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance, by Noam Chomsky (1928)

The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia, by Peter Hopkirk (1930-2014)

The Prince, by R. M. Koster (1934)

Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, by Eduardo Galeano (1940-2015)

Rule of Darkness, by Patrick Brantlinger (1941)

King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, by Adam Hochschild (1942)

Freddy and Fredericka, by Mark Helprin (1947)

The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898, by Evan Thomas (1951)

Unfamiliar Fishes, by Sarah Vowell (1969)

John A. McClure
Kipling and Conrad: The Colonial Fiction
, 1981
Late Imperial Romance
, 1994

Allegories of Empire: The Figure of Woman in the Colonial Text, 1993 by Jenny Sharpe

The Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: 1898-1902 (Men-at-arms), by Alejandro De Quesada


Vocabulary

Monroe Doctrine: A US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries in the early 19th century. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention. "The Americas for the Americans."

Roosevelt Corollary: A corollary (a statement that follows readily from a previous statementto the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–03. The corollary states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly. Roosevelt tied his policy to the Monroe Doctrine, and it was also consistent with his foreign policy of “speak softly, and carry a big stick”.

BIG STICK POLICY: Big Stick ideology, Big Stick diplomacy, or Big Stick policy is a form of hegemony. The term originated from the African proverb "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far." The idea of negotiating peacefully, simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military, ties in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies an amoral pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals.

MANIFEST DESTINY: Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic Seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century. Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only wise but that it was readily apparent (manifest) and inexorable (destiny).

ROUGH RIDERS: The "Rough Riders" is the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action. The United States army was weakened and left with little manpower after the Civil War roughly 30 years prior. As a result, President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. It was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers" after its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood, as an acknowledgment of the fact that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former assistant secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for US involvement in Cuban independence. When Colonel Wood became commander of the 1st Cavalry Brigade (1st U.S. Cavalry, 106th U.S. Cavalry, and 1st U.S.V. Cavalry) the Rough Riders then became "Roosevelt's Rough Riders."

OPEN DOOR POLICY: The Open Door Policy is a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. As a theory, the Open Door Policy originates with British commercial practice, as was reflected in treaties concluded with Qing Dynasty China after the First Opium War (1839-1842). Although the Open Door is generally associated with China, it was recognized at the Berlin Conference of 1885, which declared that no power could levy preferential duties in the Congo basin. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to the major powers (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, and Russia), asking them to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China. The open door policy stated that all European nations, and the United States, could trade with China.

SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine-American War. After the mysterious sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor, political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed the government of President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley had wished to avoid. The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U.S., which allowed temporary American control of Cuba and, following their purchase from Spain, indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.

PANAMA CANAL: The Panama Canal is a 77- kilometer (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels. The first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership, but was abandoned after 21,900 workers died, largely from disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides. The United States launched a second effort, incurring a further 5,600 deaths but succeeding in opening the canal in 1914. The U.S. controlled the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for the transition of control to Panama. From 1979 to 1999 the canal was under joint U.S.–Panamanian administration, and from 31 December 1999 command of the waterway was assumed by the Panama Canal Authority, an agency of the Panamanian government.

MILITARISM: It can be defined as a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war. It has also been defined as "aggressiveness that involves the threat of using military force", the "glorification of the ideas of a professional military class" and the "predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state. Militarism is also defined as the belief or desire of a government that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

IMPERIALISM: Imperialism is "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationships, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." Geographical domains have included the German Empire, the Mongolian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Portuguese Empire, the Spanish Empire, the Persian Empire, the French Empire, the Russian Empire, the Soviet Empire, the Chinese Empire and the British Empire.
a). NEW IMPERIALISM:
New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions.

COLONIALISM: Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. The quality or state of being colonial It is a process whereby the metropolis claims sovereignty over the colony and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonizers from the metropolis. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the metropolis and the colony and between the colonists and the indigenous population.

SOCIAL DARWINISM: Social Darwinism is a term used for various late nineteenth century ideologies predicated on the idea of survival of the fittest. It especially refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves. The most prominent form of such views stressed competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism but it is also connected to the ideas of eugenics, scientific racism, imperialism, Fascism, Nazism and struggle between national or racial groups.

"WHITE MAN's BURDEN": "The White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899. Although Kipling's poem mixed exhortation to empire with sober warnings of the costs involved, imperialists within the United States understood the phrase "white man's burden" as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise. Because of its theme and title, it has become emblematic both of Eurocentric racism and of Western aspirations to dominate the developing world.

BERLIN CONFERENCE: The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, is often seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity on the part of the European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

SPHERES OF INFLUENCE: A sphere of influence is an area or region over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military or political influence.

PROTECTORATE: The term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. However, it retains sufficient measure of sovereignty and remains a state under international law. A territory subject to this type of arrangement is also known as a protected state. A second meaning came about as a result of European colonial expansion in the nineteenth century. Many colonized territories came to be referred to as "colonial protectorates".

INDIRECT RULE: Indirect rule was a system of government that was developed in certain British colonial dependencies (particularly in parts of Africa and Asia). By this system, much of the day-to-day government of localities was left in the hands of traditional rulers (who in principle gained prestige and stability, albeit at the cost of a loss of autonomy), thus allowing a limited number of European colonial administrators to effectively oversee the government of large numbers of people spread over extensive areas.

ANNEXATION: Annexation is the de jure incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity. Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size. It can also imply a certain measure of coercion, expansionism or unilateralism on the part of the stronger of the merging entities.

ASSIMILATION: Cultural assimilation is a socio-political response to demographic multi-ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture. The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who have settled in a new land. New customs and attitudes are acquired through contact and communication. The transfer of customs is not simply a one-way process. Each group of immigrants contributes some of its own cultural traits to its new society. Assimilation usually involves a gradual change and takes place in varying degrees; full assimilation occurs when new members of a society become indistinguishable from older members.

MISSIONARY: A member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The Europeans sent missionaries to America as part of the "colonial effort". Again, they sent them to Africa with the same assignment.

SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA: The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa or Partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914.

NATIONALISM: Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms. It is nationalism that creates national identity. The belief that one's state is of primary importance, or the belief that one's state is naturally superior to all other states leads to nationalism. Nationalism emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture. Integral nationalism is a belief that a nation is an organic unit, with a social hierarchy, co-operation between the different social classes and common political goals. National flags, national anthems, and other symbols of national identity are often considered sacred, as if they were religious rather than political symbols. Deep emotions are aroused as part of nationalism.
a). NATIONALITIES: DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS INSIDE AN EMPIRE OR STATE. EVENTUALLY, THEY COULD WANT TO HAVE A NATION OF THEIR OWN.

Jingoism: It is patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy. Jingoism also refers to a country's advocation of the use of threats or actual force against peaceful relations, either economic or political, with other countries in order to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests. Colloquially, it refers to excessive bias in judging one's own country as superior to others—an extreme type of nationalism. The term originated in Britain, expressing a pugnacious attitude toward Russia in the 1870s, and appeared in the American press by 1893.

Dollar Diplomacy: The effort of the United States—particularly over President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Dollar Diplomacy was nothing new, as the use of diplomacy to promote commercial interest dates from the early years of the Republic. Under Taft, the State Department was more active than ever in encouraging and supporting American bankers and industrialists in securing new opportunities abroad. Dollar Diplomacy was designed to make both people in foreign lands and the American investors prosper. The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt.

Moral Diplomacy: Moral Diplomacy is a form of Diplomacy proposed by US President Woodrow Wilson in his 1912 election. Moral Diplomacy is the system in which support is given only to countries whose moral beliefs are analogous to that of the US. It was used by Woodrow Wilson to support countries with democratic governments and to economically injure non-democratic countries (seen as possible threats to the U.S.). He also hoped to increase the number of democratic nations, particularly in Latin America.

The Ostend Manifesto (1854): It was a document that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused. Cuba's annexation had long been a goal of U.S. expansionists, particularly as the U.S. set its sights southward following the admission of California to the Union. 

The Teller Amendment (1898): It was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition on the United States military's presence in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." In short, the U.S. would help Cuba gain independence and then withdraw all its troops from the country.

Platt Amendment (1901): An amendment to the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill. The Platt Amendment stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations. Cuba amended its constitution to contain the text of the Platt Amendment on June 12, 1901. The Treaty of Relations of 1903, signed at Havana May 22, 1903, implemented the conditions of the Platt Amendment in a treaty. The terms allowed the U.S. to intervene unilaterally in Cuban affairs and mandated negotiation for military bases on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, in what would become the Cuban–American Treaty of 1903. The 1903 Treaty of Relations was abrogated by the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The 1903 Treaty of Relations was used as justification for the Second Occupation of Cuba from 1906 to 1909. On September 29, 1906, Secretary of War (and future US president) Taft initiated the Second Occupation of Cuba when he established the Provisional Government of Cuba under the terms of the treaty (Article three), declaring himself Provisional Governor of Cuba. On October 23, 1906, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 518, ratifying the order.

Treaty of Portsmouth (1905): The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations lasting from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations, and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.

Yellow Fever: It  is an acute viral disease and is spread by the bite of the mosquitoes. Carlos Juan Finlay (1833-1915), a Cuban physician and scientist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, was the one who discovered that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti were the vectors transmitting the disease. One of the greatest challenges facing the builders of the Panama Canal was dealing with the tropical diseases in the area. The health measures taken during the construction contributed greatly to the success of the canal's construction. An estimated 12,000 workers had died during the construction of the Panama Railway and over 22,000 during the French effort to build a canal. Many of these deaths were due to yellow fever and malaria. The most ambitious part of health measures was undoubtedly the effort to eradicate the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and anopheles from the canal zone (drain and fill swamps and wetlands around the Canal Zone, oiling was used in a variety of means: workers with spray tanks were sent to spray oil on standing pools, and smaller streams were tackled by placing a dripping oil can over the waterway, which created a film of oil over each still patch of water in the stream, fumigation, etc.).

Yellow Press / Yellow Journalism: A type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion. William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) was an American newspaper publisher who built the nation’s largest newspaper chain and whose methods profoundly influenced American journalism. He exercised enormous political influence, and was famously blamed for pushing public opinion with his yellow journalism type of reporting leading the United States into a war with Spain in 1898.

Neocolonialism: The geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country, in lieu of either direct military control indirect political control, i.e. imperialism and hegemony. The term neo-colonialism was coined by Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah, to describe the socio-economic and political control that can be exercised economically, linguistically, and culturally, whereby promotion of the culture of the neo-colonist country facilitates the cultural assimilation of the colonized people and thus opens the national economy to the multinational corporations of the neo-colonial country.

De Lome Letter: A note written by Señor Don Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, to Don José Canelejas, the Foreign Minister of Spain, in which he reveals his opinion about the Spanish involvement in Cuba and US President McKinley’s diplomacy insulting the US president, calling him weak. Cuban revolutionaries intercepted the letter from the mail and released it to the Hearst press, which published it on February 9, 1898, in the New York Journal, in an article titled "Worst Insult to the United States in its History." Much of the press in New York began to demand De Lôme's resignation, and Hearst's New York Journal began a "Go Home De Lôme" campaign.

Seward's Icebox: The Alaska Purchase was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 by a treaty ratified by the U.S. Senate. Reactions to the purchase in the United States were mixed, with some opponents calling it "Seward's folly" & "Seward's Icebox" while many others praised the move for weakening both Britain and Russia as rivals to American commercial expansion in the Pacific region. With the purchase of Alaska, the United States acquired an area twice as large as Texas, but it was not until the great Klondike gold strike in 1896 that Alaska came to be seen generally as a valuable addition to American territory.

Mark Twain, Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835 – 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "The Great American Novel". Though Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he invested in ventures that lost a great deal of money. Twain chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full, though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after a visit by Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it", too. He died the day after the comet returned. He was lauded as the "greatest American humorist of his age", and William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature". He opposed American imperialism.

BOXER REBELLION (1898 and 1901): The Boxer Rebellion was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society", in China opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China. Popular sentiment remained resistant to foreign influences, and anger rose over the "unequal treaties", which the weak Qing state could not resist. There existed growing concerns that missionaries and Chinese Christians could use this decline to their advantage, appropriating lands and property of unwilling Chinese peasants to give to the church. This sentiment resulted in violent revolts against foreign interests. In response, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi, urged by the conservatives of the Imperial Court, supported the Boxers and declared war on foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers, and Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days. The siege was raised when the Eight-Nation Alliance brought 20,000 armed troops to China (3,500 were Americans), defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing. The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 ended the uprising and provided for severe punishments, including an indemnity of 67 million pounds, more than the government's annual tax revenue, to be paid as indemnity over a course of thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved.

CHINESE REVOLUTION (1911-1949):

a). CHINESE REVOLUTION (1911): The Xinhai Revolution or Revolution of 191, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644–1912), and established the Republic of China. The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911, that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China and the beginning of China's Republican era. The revolution had three main causes: (1) the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers, (2) to reverse domestic decline, and (3) the majority Han Chinese's resentment of the ruling Manchu minority. There were many revolutionary groups, but the most organized one was founded by Sun Yat-sen, a republican and anti-Qing activist who became increasingly popular among the overseas Chinese and Chinese students abroad, especially in Japan. In 1905 Sun founded the Tongmenghui in Tokyo with Huang Xing, a popular leader of the Chinese revolutionary movement in Japan, as his deputy. On January 1, 1912, Sun officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President. But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time. To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan's demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan. On March 10, in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.
b). SECOND CHINESE REVOLUTION (1913):
Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial. In August 1912, the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun's associates. It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun's Tongmenghui. In the national elections held in February 1913 for the new bicameral parliament, Song campaigned against the Yuan administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao. Song was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats. Some people believe that Yuan Shikai had Song assassinated in March; it has never been proven, although he had already arranged the assassination of several pro-revolutionist generals. Animosity towards Yuan grew. In July 1913, seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan, thus beginning the Second Revolution.  There were several underlying reasons for the Second Revolution besides Yuan's abuse of power. First was that many Revolutionary Armies from different provinces were disbanded after the establishment of the Republic of China, and many officers and soldiers felt that they were not compensated for toppling the Qing Dynasty. Thus, there was much discontent against the new government among the military. Secondly, many revolutionaries felt that Yuan Shikai and Li Yuanhong were undeserving of the posts of presidency and vice presidency, because they acquired the posts through political maneuvers, rather than participation in the revolutionary movement. And lastly, Yuan's use of violence (such as Song's assassination), dashed Kuomintang's hope of achieving reforms and political goals through electoral means. In November Yuan Shikai, legally president, ordered the Kuomintang dissolved and forcefully removed its members from parliament. On 12 December 1915, Yuan, supported by his son Yuan Keding, declared himself emperor of a new Empire of China. This sent shockwaves throughout China, causing widespread rebellion in numerous provinces. On 22 March 1916, Yuan formally repudiated monarchy and stepped down as the first and last emperor of his dynasty. Yuan died on 6 June of that year. Vice President Li Yuanhong assumed presidency and appointed Beiyang general Duan Qirui as his Premier. Yuan Shikai's imperial ambitions finally ended with the return of republican government.
c). WARLORDS ERA ( (1916-25) / THE NORTHERN EXPEDITION (1925-1927):
After Yuan Shikai's death, shifting alliances of regional warlords fought for control of the Beijing government. Despite the fact that various warlords gained control of the government in Beijing during the warlord era, this did not constitute a new era of control or governance, because other warlords did not acknowledge the transitory governments in this period and were a law unto themselves. These military-dominated governments were collectively known as the Beiyang government. In 1917 Sun Yat-sen had become commander-in-chief of a rival military government in Canton in collaboration with southern warlords. In October 1919, Sun reestablished the Kuomintang (KMT) to counter the government in Beijing. The latter, under a succession of warlords, still maintained its facade of legitimacy and its relations with the West. By 1921, Sun had become president of the southern government. He spent his remaining years trying to consolidate his regime and achieve unity with the north. His efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1920 he turned to the Soviet Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution. The Soviets sought to befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on Western imperialism. But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The CCP was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1921 and only 1,500 by 1925. The Kuomintang in 1922 already had 150,000 members. Soviet advisers also helped the Kuomintang set up a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques and in 1923 sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of Sun's lieutenants from Tongmenghui days, for several months' military and political study in Moscow. After Chiang's return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which was the seat of government under the Kuomintang-CCP alliance. In 1924 Chiang became head of the academy and began the rise to prominence that would make him Sun's successor as head of the Kuomintang and the unifier of all China under the right-wing Nationalist Government. Sun Yat-sen died of cancer in Beijing in March 1925, as the Nationalist movement he had helped to initiate was gaining momentum. During the summer of 1925, Chiang, as commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, set out on the long-delayed Northern Expedition against the northern warlords. Within nine months, half of China had been conquered. By 1926, however, the Kuomintang had divided into left- and right-wing factions, and the Communist bloc within it was also growing.
d). NANJING DECADE (1928-1937): The "Nanjing Decade" was one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists, with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy, social progress, development of democracy, and cultural creativity. Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy. Although the central government was nominally in control of the entire country during this period, large areas of China remained under the semi-autonomous rule of local warlords, provincial military leaders, or warlord coalitions. Nationalist rule was strongest in the eastern regions of China around the capital Nanjing, but regional militarists such as Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan retained considerable local authority. The Central Plains War (1930), the Japanese aggression (1931), the Fujian Rebellion (1933-34), and the the Red Army's Long March (1934-35) created many fronts and challenges for the central government, that concentrated its efforts to follow and try to destroy the Red Army led by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.
e). THE LONG MARCH (October 1934 - October 1935):
The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army led by Chiang Kai-shek. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed some 12,500 kilometers (8,000 miles) over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi. The Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. The bitter struggles of the Long March, which was completed by only one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi, would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, and would seal the personal prestige of Mao and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades.
f). SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR (1931-1945): Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese designs on China. Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in September 1931 and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Kuomintang economy. The Japanese began to push from south of the Great Wall into northern China and into the coastal provinces. Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but anger was also directed against Chiang and the Nanking government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders. The capital of Nanjing fell in December 1937. It was followed by a series of mass killings and rape of civilians in the Nanjing Massacre. The entrance of the United States into the Pacific War after 1941 changed the nature of their relationship. The Communists expanded their influence fighting the Japanese,  through mass organizations, administrative reforms, and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants and the spread of their organizational network. The Kuomintang, on the other hand, attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence and used most of the resources given by the USA for personal purposes; corruption was a plague in the Nationalist Government. After the end of the war in August 1945, the Nationalist Government moved back to Nanjing. With American help, Nationalist troops moved to take Japanese surrender in North China. The Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreement allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese. The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army. All this prepared the conditions for the Civil War between the Nationalist and the Communists.


Presidential Election of 1904


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political Party Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Theodore Roosevelt Charles Fairbanks Republican 7,630,557 56.42% 336 70.6%
Alton Parker Henry Davis Democratic 5,083,880 37.59% 140 29.4%
Eugene Debs Benjamin Hanford Socialist 402,810 2.98% 0 0.0%
Silas Swallow George Carroll Prohibition 259,103 1.92% 0 0.0%
Thomas Watson Thomas Tibbles Populist 114,062 0.84% 0 0.0%
Y Other (+) -   34,683 0.26% 0 0.0%
  Total

13,525,095

476

President Roosevelt (1901-1909) (1901-05 Replacing William McKinley, Jr., Assassinated):

Domestic Policy: Progressivism

Foreign Policy: Imperialism


 

A NEW POLICY

-EARLY PRESIDENTS HAD WARNED AGAINST INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHER NATIONS.

-AMERICANS WERE BUSY SETTLING THE WEST.

-IN THE LATE 1800’S, EUROPEANS WERE EXPANDING THEIR TRADE AND INFLUENCE AROUND THE WORLD (COLONIES IN ASIA & AFRICA).

-ONCE THE WESTERN FRONTIER WAS THE PACIFIC OCEAN, THE WHOLE COUNTRY HAD INDUSTRIES AND RAILROADS, AND ALL THE LAND WAS CLAIMED, AMERICANS LOOKED BEYOND THEIRS BORDERS.

-AMERICAN PRESIDENTS BEGAN TO PLAN HOW TO OBTAIN NEW TERRITORIES, ACQUIRE SOME COLONIES, AND CONTROL THE ECONOMIES OF MANY LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS.

 

IMPERIALISM

-THE PERIOD FROM 1850 TO 1914 HAS BEEN CALLED THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM.

-EUROPEAN POWERS (BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND GERMANY) WERE CARVING UP AFRICA AND ASIA.

-CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM:

INDUSTRIAL NATIONS NEED RAW MATERIALS.

THEY NEED MARKETS FOR THEIR INDUSTRIAL GOODS.

EUROPEANS THOUGHT THEY HAD THE DUTY OF SPREAD THEIR OWN CULTURE & IDEAS TO "CIVILIZE THOSE BARBARIAN PEOPLE".

COMPETITION BETWEEN EUROPEAN POWERS: TAKE OVER AN AREA FIRST.

-AMERICANS WANTED TO COMPETE, TO HAVE THEIR SHARE.

THE U.S. EXPANSION

-A STRONG NAVY WAS BUILT: THE GREAT WHITE FLEET.

-U.S. BOUGHT ALASKA FROM RUSSIA (1867) FOR $7,2 MILLIONS (2 CENTS / ACRE).

-IN 1898, PROSPECTORS FOUND GOLD IN ALASKA. IN THE 1940’S OIL WAS ALSO FOUND.

-IN 1867, THE U.S. ANNEXED MIDWAY ISLAND.

-IN 1853, COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY SAILED HIS 4 WARSHIPS INTO TOKYO BAY AND LEFT A LETTER FROM THE U.S. PRESIDENT ASKING FOR A TRADE TREATY. HE RETURNED NEXT YEAR WITH 7 WARSHIPS AND THE EMPEROR SIGNED THE TREATY OF YOKOHAMA: REFUELING RIGHTS & OPEN TWO PORTS TO TRADE

-IN THE EARLY 1800’S YANKEE WHALING SHIPS STOPPED AT THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. IN 1820, AMERICAN MISSIONARIES ARRIVED TO CONVERT THE NATIVES TO CHRISTIANITY.

-BY THE MID-1800’S, AMERICANS HAD SET UP MANY LARGE SUGAR PLANTATIONS IN HAWAII.

-IN 1893, AMERICAN PLANTERS LED A REVOLT AGAINST HAWAIIAN QUEEN, SET UP A REPUBLIC, AND ASKED TO BE ANNEXED BY THE U.S. WHAT OCCURRED IN 1898. IN 1959, HAWAII BECAME THE 50th. STATE.

-IN 1899 THE U.S. AND GERMANY DIVIDED CONTROL OF SAMOA, A CHAIN OF ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC.

-IN THE 1800’S, BRITAIN, FRANCE, RUSSIA, JAPAN, AND GERMANY CARVED UP CHINA. EACH POWER SET UP ITS OWN SPHERE OF INFLUENCE.

-IN 1899, THE U.S. SENT A LETTER TO THE EUROPEAN NATIONS SETTLED IN CHINA URGING THEM TO "OPEN DOORS" TO FREE TRADE WITH CHINA.

-IN 1900 THE BOXERS REBELLED IN CHINA. THEY ATTACKED FOREIGNERS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS ORGANIZED AN INTERNATIONAL ARMY AND MARCHED ON PEKING (IT INCLUDED 2,500 AMERICAN SOLDIERS). THE REBELLION WAS CRASHED AND CHINA WAS DIVIDED IN SEVERAL PARTS.

-IN 1917, THE U.S. BOUGHT THE VIRGIN ISLANDS FROM DENMARK.

 

THE U.S. IN LATIN AMERICA.

-EUROPEANS INVESTED HEAVILY IN L.A. DURING THE 1800’S. THE U.S. RESENTED THIS AND TRIED TO ENFORCE THE MONROE DOCTRINE.

-IN 1889, THE U.S. ORGANIZED A PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE TO IMPROVE THE RELATIONS WITH LATIN AMERICA.

-IN 1891, THE U.S. TOOK SIDES IN A CIVIL WAR IN CHILE.

-IN 1895, CUBANS REBELLED AGAINST SPAIN LED BY JOSE MARTI, ANTONIO MACEO AND MAXIMO GOMEZ. THIS TIME THE REBELS WERE WINING (THE WAR OF THE 10 YEARS WAS LOST).

- AMERICANS HAD INVESTED $50 MILLIONS IN CUBA AND THE TRADE WITH CUBA WAS WORTH $100 MILLIONS A YEAR.

-AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS COMPETED IN PRINTING STORIES ABOUT SPANISH CRUELTY.

-IN 1898, PRESIDENT McKinley SENT THE BATTLESHIP MAINE TO HAVANA TO PROTECT AMERICAN CITIZENS AND PROPERTIES. THE NIGHT OF FEBRUARY 15, 1898, AN EXPLOSION RIPPED THROUGH THE BATTLESHIP. 260 SAILORS DIED. MOST OF THE OFFICIALS WERE NOT ON BOARD. SPAIN DECLARED THAT THIS WAS A PROVOCATION OF THE U.S.

-ON APRIL 25, 1898 CONGRESS DECLARED WAR ON SPAIN. THE WAR LASTED ONLY 4 MONTHS FOR AMERICANS. IT WAS FOUGHT IN TWO FRONTS: THE PHILIPPINES AND THE CARIBBEAN. LATER, AMERICAN SOLDIERS LANDED ON PUERTO RICO.

-AMERICAN TROOPS, LED BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT, TOOK SANTIAGO DE CUBA AFTER THE SPANISH FLEET WAS DEFEATED. CALIXTO GARCIA TROOPS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO ENTER IN THE CITY.

-ON AUGUST 12, SPAIN SURRENDERED AND AGREED TO PEACE.

-ONLY 386 AMERICAN SOLDIERS DIED IN BATTLE, BUT 5,000 DIED OF YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA. DR. CARLOS J. FINLAY DISCOVERY HELPED TO STOP THE EPIDEMIC.

-IN THE PEACE TREATY SIGNED ON DECEMBER , 1898, SPAIN GAVE THE U.S. PUERTO RICO, GUAM, AND PHILIPPINES. SPAIN ALSO GRANTED CUBA ITS FREEDOM. HOWEVER, AMERICAN TROOPS STAYED ON THE ISLAND FOR 4 YEARS.

-IN 1901, CUBA WAS ALLOWED TO WRITE ITS OWN CONSTITUTION, BUT THE NEW NATION HAD TO ACCEPT THE PLATT AMENDMENT:

CUBA WOULD HAVE LIMITED RIGHTS TO MAKE TREATIES OR BORROW MONEY FROM OTHER NATIONS.

THE U.S. COULD INTERVENE WHENEVER AMERICANS CONSIDERED IT NECESSARY TO PROTECT ITS CITIZENS OR PROPERTY.

THE U.S. WOULD CONTROL A NAVAL BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY.

-BY THE FORAKER ACT OF 1900, THE U.S. SET UP A GOVERNMENT FOR PUERTO RICO. IN 1917, PUERTO RICANS BECAME AMERICAN CITIZENS.

-FOR MORE THAN 3 YEARS FILIPINOS FOUGHT AGAINST AMERICAN TROOPS. IN 1946, THE U.S. DECIDED THAT FILIPINOS WERE READY FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT.

-PANAMA WAS PART OF COLOMBIA. PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT TRIED TO BUY A STRIP OF LAND ACROSS PANAMA TO BUILD A CANAL, BUT COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSED.

-ROOSEVELT USED TO SAY: "SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY A BIG STICK AND YOU WILL GO FAR".

-THE U.S. ENCOURAGED THE PEOPLE OF PANAMA TO REVOLT AGAINST COLOMBIAN RULE. ON NOVEMBER 2, 1903, AMERICAN WARSHIPS SAILED INTO THE PORT OF COLON. THE NEXT DAY THE PEOPLE OF PANAMA REBELLED AND AMERICANS STOPPED COLOMBIAN FORCES FROM FIGHTING THE REBELS.

-PANAMA GAINED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND AGREED TO LET THE U.S. BUILD THE CANAL.

-IN 1904 ROOSEVELT ANNOUNCED A NEW POLICY: ROOSEVELT COROLLARY THAT WAS AN EXPANSION OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE. (U.S. HAS THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE IN ANY NATION OF LATIN AMERICA TO PRESERVE THE LAW AND ORDER).

-PRESIDENT TAFT PROMOTED AMERICAN INVESTMENTS IN L.A. THIS POLICY WAS CALLED THE DOLLAR DIPLOMACY. HOWEVER, MILITARY INTERVENTIONS IN L.A. PERSISTED (NICARAGUA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HAITI, HONDURAS, ETC.).

-LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS BITTERLY RESENTED THESE INVASIONS.

-FROM 1911 TO 1916 MEXICO WAS PLUNGED INTO A VIOLENT REVOLUTION. IN 1914 THE U.S. NAVY OCCUPIED THE MEXICAN PORT OF VERACRUZ. TWO YEARS LATER, GEN. JOHN J. PERSHING, WITH 6,000 SOLDIERS, CROSSED THE MEXICAN BORDER TO PURSUE PANCHO VILLA, WHO HAD KILLED 19 AMERICAN CITIZENS. FINALLY, AMERICAN TROOPS LEFT MEXICO (WW I).

  

American Imperialism


The Big Stick Policy or Roosevelt's Corollary


The Great White Fleet


Explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor


Destruction of the Spanish Fleet during the Spanish-American War


American military interventions in the Caribbean


American acquisitions in the Pacific Ocean


Political Cartoon presenting the results of American imperialism

POINTS OF VIEW

SOME  EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS SAY THAT THEY BROUGHT DEVELOPMENT, EDUCATION, AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS TO THE COLONIES. THE VICTIMS OF IMPERIALISM SAY THAT EUROPEANS / AMERICANS LOOTED THEIR NATURAL RESOURCES, TRIED TO DESTROY THEIR NATIVE CULTURE AND CUSTOMS, TRIED TO CHANGE THEIR RELIGION AND LANGUAGE, AND TREATED THEIR PEOPLE LIKE SLAVES.

 


Russo-Japanese War 1905: It had huge repercussions: launched Japan as a world power & caused the humiliation and a revolution in Russia. Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Prize (Peace) for his mediation to achieve peace.


2-World War I
 

Topic 5:   UNITED STATES’ INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I                                                                                                                                   Pacing:  Traditional:  10 Days   Block: 5 Days

Essential Questions:
What were the political, economic and military causes, courses and consequences of World War I?
What were the long term and immediate causes of U.S. involvement on the side of the Allies?
To what extent did its involvement in World War I affect life in the United States?
How did the Treaty of Versailles attempt to achieve peace, and to what extent did it succeed?

Strand(s) and Standard(s)

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):   

American History (Standard 1:  Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 4:  Demonstrate an understanding of the changing role of the United States in world affairs through the end of World War I.)

Geography (Standard 1:  Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2:  Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4:  Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)

Humanities (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3:  Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.A.4.5 Examine causes, course, and consequences of United States involvement in World War I.

SS.912.A.4.6 Examine how the United States government prepared the nation for war with war measures (Selective Service Act, War Industries Board, war bonds, Espionage Act, Sedition Act, Committee of Public Information).

SS.912.A.4.7 Examine the impact of airplanes, battleships, new weaponry and chemical warfare in creating new war strategies (trench warfare, convoys).

SS.912.A.4.8 Compare the experiences Americans (African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, women, conscientious objectors) had while serving in Europe.

SS.912.A.4.9 Compare how the war impacted German Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Jewish Americans, Native Americans, women and dissenters in the United States.

SS.912.A.4.10 Examine the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and the failure of the United States to support the League of Nations.

SS.912.A.4.11 Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as they relate to United States history.

Essential Content:

•CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I IN EUROPE

o    Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, & the Alliance System

AMERICAN NEUTRALITY

•REASONS FOR U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I

o    German Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

o    The Zimmermann Telegram

•U.S. MOBILIZATION FOR WORLD WAR I

o    Selective Service Act

o    War Industries Board

o    War Bonds

o    Espionage Act

o    Sedition Act

o    Committee on Public Information (CPI)

NEW TECHNOLOGY & WAR STRATEGIES

o    Airplanes, Battleships, New Weaponry, Trench Warfare, & Convoy System

o    Total War

• THE IMPACT OF THE WAR

o    Impact of the War on Americans Serving in Europe (African Americans & Women)

o    Role of Women, African Americans, and Latinos in Preparing for the War on the Home Front

o    Racism Against German Americans in the United States

o    Consequences of the War for African Americans and Women on the Home Front

o    The Great Migration

•EVENTS OF THE WAR

•WILSON’S IDEALISM & THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

o    The Fourteen Points

o    The League of Nations

o    Reasons for Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles by U.S. Senate

Republican Opposition

Content Focus:

Content Focus:   

Allies, Central Powers, alliances, U-boats, convoy system, conscription, the Western Front, expeditionary force, armistice, mobilization, war boards, sedition, espionage, propaganda, self-determination, war guilt, reparations, isolationism, neutrality, demobilization, belligerents, conscientious objector, John J. Pershing, Henry Cabot Lodge, African Americans in World War I, armistice, Big Four, entangling alliances, Espionage Act, Fourteen Points, Hispanics in World War I, home front, imperialism, League of Nations, Lusitania, militarism, new technology in World War I, Selective Service Act, Sussex Pledge, trench warfare, unrestricted submarine warfare, Treaty of Versailles, war bonds, women in World War I, Zimmermann Telegram

 

 

Free Videos

YouTube

The First World War: A Tribute: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5NOvurLQhk
Turning Points in History: Ferdinand and WW I: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u90NohmlyGM
In the Trenches (2 parts): ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3Aw5JnDdds&feature=related
The Great War: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXT67aDxZk8&feature=related
Origins of WW I (2 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7kp3vf1uKA&feature=related
Outbreak of WW I: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCbNE3ToePA&feature=related
Battle of Verdun (4 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWJB6Y-3N5o
Battle of the Somme
 (4 parts): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGXAphAjKwM
Hundred Days Offensive (4 parts): 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SPBHjE6MOPI&feature=related

Crash Course

America in World War I: Crash Course US History #30

Study.com

  1. Causes of World War I: Factors That Led to War

  2. The United States in World War I: Official Position, Isolation & Intervention

  3. American Involvement in World War I: How the War Changed After America's Entry

  4. End of WWI: the Treaty of Versailles & the League of Nations

The Century: America's Time

  1. The Century, America's Time: Shell Shock (1 of 3)

  2. The Century, America's Time: Shell Shock (2 of 3)

  3. The Century, America's Time: Shell Shock (3 of 3)


Timeline 1913-1919

1913-21- Woodrow Wilson president of the U.S.A.; he wins reelection on campaign of keeping U.S. neutral during war

1914-18- WWI: bloodiest war in world history to date, aka "The Great War", "The War to End All Wars"

1915 – German U-Boat sinks British passenger liner Lusitania, Americans killed on board

1917 – Germany continues unrestricted submarine warfare – gets warning from U.S.

1917 Zimmerman Telegram – intercepted by British, asks for Germany/Mexico alliance against U.S.; US. Enters WWI

1917 – Selective Service Act – establishes the draft

1918- Armistice: end of the fighting in western Europe; victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany

1918 – Fourteen Points – by Woodrow Wilson, 14th pt most important – calls for League of Nations

1919 – Treaty of Versailles; calls for heavy reparations on Germany, disarmament, and creation of League of Nations; U.S. Senate rejects it


Literature

All Quiet on the Western Front, by 
The Guns of August, by 
A Farewell to Arms, by 
Birdsong, by 
Fall of Giants, by 
War Horse, by 
The Hollow Men (1925), by T.S. Eliot
Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953)
Bread and Butter, 1914
Servitude, 1914
The Personal Equation, 1915
Now I Ask You, 1916
Beyond the Horizon, 1918
The Straw, 1919
Chris Christophersen, 1919
Gold, 1920
Anna Christie, 1920

"Lost Generation": The generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein.  This generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque. "Lost" means not vanished but disoriented, wandering, directionless — a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness among the war's survivors in the early post-war years.


Presidential Election of 1912


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Marshall Democratic 6,294,284 41.83% 435 81.9%
Theodore Roosevelt Hiram Johnson Progressive 4,120,609 27.39% 88 16.6%
William Taft Nicholas Butler Republican 3,487,937 23.18% 8 1.5%
Eugene Debs Emil Seidel Socialist 900,742 5.99% 0 0.0%
Eugene Chafin Aaron Watkins Prohibition 208,115 1.38% 0 0.0%
Y Other (+) -   33,859 0.23% 0 0.0%
  Total

15,045,546

531

President Wilson (1913-20)

Domestic Policy: Progressivism, The New Freedom Program.

The War

Foreign Policy: Aggressive Moral Diplomacy


 

Vocabulary

MILITARISM: The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. It may also imply the glorification of the ideals of a professional military class" and the "predominance of the armed forces in the administration or policy of the state. Militarism has been a significant element of the imperialist or expansionist ideologies of several nations throughout history.

KAISER & CZAR: Emperors of Germany & Russia.

TRENCH WARFARE: Trench warfare is a form of occupied fighting lines, consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are largely immune to the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. It has become a byword for attrition warfare, for stalemate in conflict, with a slow wearing down of opposing forces. Trench warfare occurred when a military revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defense held the advantage. In World War I, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man's land") was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even if successful, often sustained severe casualties as a matter of course.

PACIFIST: Pacifism is the opposition to war and/or violence. The term "pacifism" was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864 - 1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901.

PROPAGANDA: As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of political warfare.

CENTRAL POWERS / TRIPLE ALLIANCE: It was one of the two sides that participated in World War I and was also known as the Triple Alliance, the other being the Triple Entente (Allied Powers). It was made up of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.

ALLIED POWERS / ENTENTE: Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The key members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire. These other countries were also minor members of the Entente: Belgium, Serbia, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania. The United States declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated US neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram that was sent to Mexico. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Great Britain, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements". Although the Ottoman Empire severed relations with the United States, it did not declare war

NEUTRAL: A neutral power in a particular war is a sovereign state which declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents.

BELLIGERENTS: An individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat ( "one who wages war").

ISOLATIONISM A category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who asserted that their nations' best interests were best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance, as well as a term used, sometimes pejoratively, in political debates. Most Isolationists believe that limiting international involvement keeps their country from being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. Some strict Isolationists believe that their country is best served by even avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR: An "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, and/or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is only considered in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to volunteer military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, or antimilitarist.

U-BOAT: U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word U-Boot, itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot (undersea boat), and refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II.

SUSSEX PLEDGE: A promise made in 1916 during World War I by Germany to the United States prior to the latter's entry into the war. Early in 1916, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships – but not passenger ships – to be torpedoed without warning. Despite this avowed restriction, a French cross-channel passenger ferry, the Sussex, was torpedoed without warning on March 24, 1916; the ship was severely damaged and about 50 lives were lost. Although no U.S. citizens were killed in this attack, it prompted President Woodrow Wilson to declare that if Germany were to continue this practice, the United States would break diplomatic relations with Germany. Fearing the entry of the United States into World War I, Germany attempted to appease the United States by issuing, on May 4, 1916, the Sussex pledge, which promised a change in Germany’s naval warfare policy. The primary elements of this undertaking were:

In 1917 Germany became convinced they could defeat the Allied Forces by instituting unrestricted submarine warfare before the United States could enter the war. The Sussex pledge was therefore rescinded in January 1917, thereby initiating the decisive stage of the so-called First Battle of the Atlantic. The resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmermann Telegram caused the United States to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare: A type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules"). Prize rules call for submarines to surface and search for merchantmen and place crews in "a place of safety" (for which lifeboats did not qualify, except under particular circumstances) before sinking them, unless the ship has shown "persistent refusal to stop ... or active resistance to visit or search".

Convoy System: A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support.  Convoys were used by the Royal Navy in 1914 to escort troopships from the Dominions, and in 1915 by both it and the French Navy to cover their own troop movements for overseas service. They were not systematically employed by any belligerent navy until 1916. The Royal Navy was the major user and developer of the modern convoy system, and regular transoceanic convoying began in June 1917. They made heavy use of aircraft for escorts, especially in coastal waters.

Conscription:  The compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service. In the United States, conscription, also called "the draft", ended in 1973, but males between 18 and 25 are required to register with the Selective Service System to enable a reintroduction of conscription if necessary. 

Lusitania: A British ocean liner, holder of the Blue Riband and briefly the world's biggest ship. She was launched by the Cunard Line in 1906, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. In 1915 she was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat, causing the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew.

Home Front: The informal term for the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of their military. Military forces depend on "home front" civilian support services such as factories that build materiel to support the military front. Civilians are traditionally uninvolved in combat, except when the fighting happened to reach their dwelling places. However, the expanded destructive capabilities of modern warfare posed an increased direct threat to civilian populations. With the rapid increase of military technology, the term "military effort" has changed to include the "home front" as a reflection of both a civilian "sector" capacity to produce arms, as well as the structural or policy changes which deal with its vulnerability to direct attack.

War Industries Board: The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs. The WIB dealt with labor-management disputes resulting from increased demand for products during World War I. The government could not negotiate prices and could not handle worker strikes, so the War Industries Board regulated the two to decrease tensions by stopping strikes with wage increases to prevent a shortage of supplies going to the war in Europe.

The Western Front: Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the race to the sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained essentially unchanged for most of the war.

The Eastern Front: During World War I, the Eastern Front (sometimes called the "Second Fatherland War" in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria and Germany on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well.

Expeditionary Force: A generic name sometimes applied to a military force dispatched to fight in a foreign country. The term was particularly common in World War I and World War II.

Mobilization:  The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.

War Bonds:  Debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war. The bonds also remove money from circulation and thus also help to control inflation. War bonds are either retail bonds marketed direct to the public or wholesale bonds traded on a stock market. Exhortations to buy war bonds are often accompanied with appeals to patriotism and conscience. Retail war bonds, like other retail bonds, tend to have a yield which is below that offered by the market and are often made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable for all citizens. In 1917 and 1918, the United States government issued Liberty Bonds to raise money for its involvement in World War I. An aggressive campaign was created by Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo to popularize the bonds, grounded largely as patriotic appeals.

Sedition: In law, sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority to tend toward insurrection against the established order. Sedition often includes subversion of a constitution and incitement of discontent (or resistance) to lawful authority. Sedition may include any commotion, though not aimed at direct and open violence against the laws. Seditious words in writing are seditious libel. A seditionist is one who engages in or promotes the interests of sedition.

Espionage: Espionage or spying involves a government or individual obtaining information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. Espionage is inherently clandestine, as it is taken for granted that it is unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. It is a subset of "intelligence gathering", which otherwise may be conducted from public sources and using perfectly legal and ethical means. It is crucial to distinguish espionage from "intelligence" gathering, as the latter does not necessarily involve espionage, but often collates open-source information. Espionage is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term is generally associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. 

The Sedition Act of 1918: It was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds. It forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt. Those convicted under the act generally received sentences of imprisonment for 5 to 20 years. The act also allowed the Postmaster General to refuse to deliver mail that met those same standards for punishable speech or opinion. It applied only to times "when the United States is in war." These laws affected mostly Socialist & Union Labor leaders.

BARBED WIRE: It is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand (s). It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property. It is also a major feature of the fortifications in trench warfare.

War Guilt: Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers. The article served as a legal basis to compel Germany to pay reparations.

WAR REPARATIONS: War reparations are payments intended to cover damage or injury during a war. Generally, the term war reparations refers to money or goods changing hands, rather than such property transfers as the annexation of land. Russia agreed to pay reparations to the Central Powers when Russia exited the war in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (which was repudiated by the Bolshevik government eight months later). Germany agreed to pay reparations of 132 billion gold marks to the Triple Entente in the Treaty of Versailles. The amount of reparations was later reduced by the Agreement on German External Debts in 1953. The last installment of these reparations was paid on 3 October 2010. Bulgaria paid reparations of 2.25 billion gold francs (90 million pounds) to the Entente, according to Treaty of Neuilly.

ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM: The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note) was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was caught by the British before it could get to Mexico. The revelation angered the Americans and led in part to a U.S. declaration of war in April.

TOTAL WAR: Total war is a war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population. In a total war, there is less differentiation between combatants and civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes no such differentiation at all, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort.

SHELL SHOCK: A term coined to describe the reaction of some soldiers in World War I to the trauma of battle. It was a reaction to the intensity of the bombardment and fighting that produced a helplessness appearing variously as panic and being scared, or flight, an inability to reason, sleep, walk or talk. In World War II and thereafter, diagnosis of 'shell shock' was replaced by that of combat stress reaction, a similar but not identical response to the trauma of warfare and bombardment.

ARMISTICE: An armistice is a situation in a war where the warring parties agree to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, but may be just a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace.

WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS: The Fourteen Points was a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. People in Europe generally welcomed Wilson's intervention, but his Allied colleagues (Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando) were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism.

SELF-DETERMINATION: The right of nations to self-determination or in short form, the right to self-determination is the cardinal principle in modern international law binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms. It states that nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or interference.
"National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action. . . ."
Woodrow Wilson with his famous self-determination speech on 11 February 1918 after he announced his Fourteen Points on 8 January 1918.

PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (1919): The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS: The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATES: A League of Nations mandate was the transference of the colonies taken from the states defeated in World War I, principally Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire, to the victorious nations of World War I (Britain & France), or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into on 28 June 1919. The mandates were fundamentally different from the protectorates in that the Mandatory power undertook obligations to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League of Nations.

TREATY OF VERSAILLES: The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on June 28, 1919.

DEMOBILIZATION: the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary. The opposite of demobilization is mobilization. Forceful demobilization of a defeated enemy is called demilitarization. In the final days of World War I & II, for example, the United States Armed Forces developed a demobilization plan which would discharge soldiers on the basis of a point system that favored length and certain types of service. The British armed forces were demobilized according to an 'age-and-service' scheme. The phrase demob happy refers to demobilization and is broadly applied to the feeling of relief at imminent release from a time-serving burden, such as a career

"LOST GENERATION": The generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein.  This generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque. "Lost" means not vanished but disoriented, wandering, directionless — a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness among the war's survivors in the early post-war years.

Nineteenth Amendment (1920)-The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications of voters, subject to limitations imposed by later amendments. Until the 1910s, most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett, in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give women the right to vote. The Nineteenth Amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent. Forty-one years later, in 1919, Congress approved the amendment and submitted it to the states for ratification. It was ratified by the requisite number of states a year later.

Leaders / Key People

BIG FOUR:  The top Allied leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919 following the end of World War I (1914–18). The Big Four are also known as the Council of Four. It was composed of Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Georges Clemenceau of France.

WOODROW WILSON (1856-1924): PRESIDENT 28th. OF THE U.S. (1913-21).

GEORGE CLEMENCEAU (1841-1929): FRENCH PRESIDENT DURING WW I.

DAVID LLOYD GEORGE (1863-1945): PRIME MINISTER OF GB.

VITTORIO ORLANDO (1860-1952): PRIME MINISTER OF ITALY.

KAISER WILHELM or WILLIAM II: Emperor of Germany

CZAR NICHOLAS II: Emperor of Russia

ARCHDUKE FRANCIS FERDINAND (1863-1914): AUSTRIA-HUNGARY'S  THRONE HEIR.

V. I. LENIN (1870-1924): SOVIET UNION FOUNDER. BOLSHEVIKS’ LEADER.

Gen. JOHN J. PERSHING (BLACK JACK) (1860-1948): CHIEF OF AMERICAN EXPEDITION IN WW I. He wanted the US troops to fight independently of the other allied armies.

FIELD  MARSHAL FERDINAND FOCH (1851-1929): FRENCH COMMANDER OF ALLIED FORCES IN WW I.

WILLIAM II (1859-1941): GERMAN KAISER.

WILBUR (1867-1912) AND ORVILLE (1871-1948) WRIGHT: AMERICAN PILOTS WHO INVENTED & FLEW THE FIRST PLANE IN HISTORY MADE BY THEMSELVES.

BARON von RICHTHOFEN (1892-1918): FAMOUS GERMAN PILOT  (RED BARON).

EDDIE RICKENBACKER (1890-1973): FAMOUS AMERICAN PILOT.

MATA HARI (1876-1917): DUTCH DANCER WHO BECAME A GERMAN SPY. THE FRENCH CAPTURED AND EXECUTED HER..

GAVRILO PRINCIP (1894-1918): 19 YEARS OLD SERBIAN NATIONALIST WHO KILLED ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND. HE WAS SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS IN JAIL.

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) An American Republican Senator. He was also a friend and confidant of Theodore Roosevelt. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles.

Jeannett Rankin (1880 – 1973): She became the first woman to hold a high government office in the United States when she won election to the United States Congress, in 1916 from the state of Montana. After winning her House seat in 1916 she said, "I may be the first woman member of Congress but I won’t be the last." She was again elected in 1940. Rankin's two terms in Congress coincided with U.S. entry into both World Wars. A lifelong pacifist, she was one of 56 members of Congress who voted against entry into World War I in 1917, and the only member of Congress to vote against declaring war on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.

African Americans in World War I: Over one million African Americans responded to their draft calls, and roughly 370,000 black men were inducted into the army. A camp opened on June 18, 1917, in Des Moines, Iowa, with 1,250 aspiring black officer candidates. At the close of the camp on October 17, 1917, 639 men received commissions, a historical first. The military created two combat divisions for African Americans. One, the 92nd Division, was composed of draftees and officers. The second, the 93rd Division, was made up of mostly National Guard units from New York, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, and Massachusetts. The army, however, assigned the vast majority of soldiers to service units, reflecting a belief that black men were more suited for manual labor than combat duty. Black soldiers were stationed and trained throughout the country, although most facilities were located in the South. They had to endure racial segregation and often received substandard clothing, shelter, and social services.

Hispanics in World War I: Some 200,000 Hispanics were mobilized for World War I, the bulk being Mexican-Americans. They were integrated throughout the armed forces; however, the majority of the 18,000 Puerto Ricans who were inducted served in the island’s six segregated infantry regiments, guarding key installations in Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal zone. Three of these regiments, the 373rd, 374th, and 375th (a unit of black Puerto Ricans) made up the Provisional Division of Puerto Rico. The war ended before the unit could deploy overseas and it was demobilized in 1919. One Hispanic, David Barkley, of the 89th Infantry Division’s 356th Infantry Regiment, won the Medal of Honor posthumously for his actions near Pouilly, France on November 9, 1918. A Private Serna single-handedly captured 24 German soldiers in France. For his courageous efforts, Private Serna received the Distinguished Service Cross, the French Croix de Guerre, the Victory Medal with three bars, and two Purple Hearts. Soldiers with Spanish surnames or Spanish accents were sometimes the objects of ridicule and relegated to menial jobs. Latinos lacking English skills were sent to special training centers to improve their language proficiency so that they could be integrated into the mainstream army. 

Women in World War I: During the course of the war, 21,498 U.S. Army nurses (military nurses were all women then) served in military hospitals in the United States and overseas. Eighteen African-American Army nurses served stateside caring for German prisoners of war (POWs) and African-American soldiers; after the Armistice, Nov. 11, 1918, they entered the Army Nurse Corps and cared for people. African-American women also served in World War I as U.S. Yeomen (F). Of the 11,274 U.S. Yeomen (F) who served from 1917-1921, 14 were black. The first American women enlisted into the regular armed forces were 13,000 women admitted into active duty in the Navy and Marines during World War I, and a much smaller number admitted into the Coast Guard. The Yeoman (F) recruits and women Marines primarily served in clerical positions. They received the same benefits and responsibilities as men, including identical pay (US $28.75 per month), and were treated as veterans after the war. These women were quickly demobilized when hostilities ceased, and aside from the Nurse Corps the soldiery became once again exclusively male. The U.S. Army recruited and trained 233 female bilingual telephone operators to work at switchboards near the front in France and sent 50 skilled female stenographers to France to work with the Quartermaster Corps. The U.S. Navy enlisted 11,880 women as Yeomen (F) to serve stateside in shore billets and release sailors for sea duty. More than 1,476 U.S. Navy nurses served in military hospitals stateside and overseas. The U.S. Marine Corps enlisted 305 female Marine Reservists (F) to "free men to fight" by filling positions such as clerks and telephone operators on the home front. More than 400 U.S. military nurses died in the line of duty during World War I. 


NEW WEAPONS USED IN WW I

PLANES, TANKS, U-BOATS, POISON GAS, FLAME THROWERS,  AND MACHINE GUNS.


MAJOR EVENTS

 CAUSES

1-NATIONALISM

2-GERMANY, A YOUNG AND POWERFUL NATION, WANTED ITS SHARE. IN 1871, GERMANY TOOK ALSACE AND LORRAINE FROM FRANCE

3-IMPERIALISM: EUROPEAN POWERS WERE READY TO FIGHT FOR COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA (RAW MATERIALS AND MARKETS FOR THEIR INDUSTRIAL GOODS)

4-MILITARISM

 

THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM

1-THE CENTRAL POWERS: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, GERMANY, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

2-THE ALLIES: GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA (THE US ENTERED IN 1917)

 

WAR FRONTS: EASTERN FRONT (RUSSIAN TERRITORY) & WESTERN FRONT (FRENCH TERRITORY)

 

THE WORLD WAR I

1-THE INCIDENT OF SARAJEVO, SERBIA (JUNE 28, 1914)

2-AUSTRIA DECLARED WAR TO SERBIA ( A RUSSIAN ALLY); RUSSIA DECLARED WAR TO AUSTRIA; GERMANY DECLARED WAR TO RUSSIA AND FRANCE; GREAT BRITAIN DECLARED WAR TO GERMANY.

3-WAR IN THE TRENCHES: MINES, SHELLING, BARBED WIRE. SEE BATTLES OF WW I

4-AMERICAN NEUTRALITY: THE WAR AS A BUSINESS, ECONOMIC BOOM.

5-GERMAN SUBMARINES. THE LUSITANIA (1915).

6-THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM (FEB. 1917)

7-RUSSIA WAS THE NATION SUFFERING MORE DAMAGES DURING THE WAR; HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CASUALTIES IN THE FRONT; THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE WAS STARVING TO DEATH. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (MARCH - NOV. 1917). THE TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK.

8-THE US ENTERED IN THE WAR (APRIL 6, 1917): THE SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT ( 4 MILLION MEN WERE RECRUITED); THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION AND THE WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD; LIBERTY BONDS TO FUND THE WAR (21 BILLIONS); Song "OVER THERE" (click here to listen to the song):

Johnny, get your gun, get your gun, get your gun
Take it on the run, on the run, on the run
Hear them calling you and me
Every Son of Liberty
Hurry right away, no delay, go today
Make your Daddy glad to have had such a lad
Tell your sweetheart not to pine,
To be proud her boy's in line
 
Johnny, get your gun, get your gun, get your gun
Johnny, show the "Hun" you're a son-of-a-gun
Hoist the flag and let her fly
Yankee Doodle do or die
Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit
Yankee to the ranks from the towns and the tanks
Make your Mother proud of you
And the old red-white-and-blue

Chorus

Over there, over there,
Send the word, send the word over there
That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming
The drum's rum-tumming everywhere
So prepare, say a prayer,
Send the word, send the word to beware
We'll be over, we're coming over
And we won't come back till it's over, over there

9-GERMANY MOVED ITS ARMY TO THE WESTERN FRONT (1918). THE BATTLE OF AMIENS.

10-THE ALLIES' OFFENSIVE: THE BATTLE OF ARGONNE FOREST.

11-THE ARMISTICE (NOV. 18, 1918)

12-WILSON'S 14 POINTS: NO MORE MILITARY SECRET PACTS, ESTABLISH LIMITS ON THE PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS, FREE TRADE, SELF-DETERMINATION FOR ALL NATIONS (COLONIES?), CREATION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

13-VERSAILLES TREATY (JUNE 1919): GERMANY WILL BE DISARMED AND WILL PAY HUGE WAR REPARATIONS, GERMAN COLONIES WILL PASS TO THE ALLIES, RUSSIA LOST MANY TERRITORIES, SEVERAL NEW NATIONS WOULD BE CREATED (BREAKOUT OF THE EMPIRES), CREATION OF THE LEAGUE OF THE NATIONS. PUNISHMENT INSTEAD OF PEACE

14-MORE THAN 25 MILLION OF CASUALTIES; BILLIONS IN MATERIAL LOSSES. EUROPE WAS DESTROYED. THE US BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL NATION.


   
William II, German Emperor                                  The Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (USA), David Lloyd George (GB),
                                                                                  Vittorio Orlando (Italy), and Georges Clemenceau (France)


Assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist.


Zimmerman telegram


The United States of America joined the Allies. U.S. Congress declared war on Germany on April 6th., 1917

New Weapons Used during WW I

 


Life in the Trenches


Good Hunt


World War Posters (Propaganda)

Films:

MAJOR BATTLES OF WW I

Western Front

Eastern Front

 

Wilson's Fourteen Points:

  1. 1-Open covenants of peace diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
  2. 2-Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters
  3. 3-The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations
  4. 4-National armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
  5. 5-A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims
  6. 6-The evacuation of all Russian territory and secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations.
  7. 11-The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
  8. 12-The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development
  9. 13-An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations
  10. 14-A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

The Peace of Paris

1- A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace. 

Territorial

1-The following land was taken away from Germany :
a. Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
b. Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
c. Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
d. Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia, a new country)
e. West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
f. The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.

2-The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.

3-Germany had to return  land taken from Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Most of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received part of this land. (Punish Russia for getting out of the War and becoming Communist)

4-The Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire were broken into pieces and replaced by numerous smaller nations

Military

Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks or an air force. She was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarised zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.

Financial

Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause". Germany was  responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, she had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the infrastructure of both countries by the war. The Germans were told to write a blank check which the Allies would cash when it suited them. The figure was eventually put at £6,600 million - a huge sum of money well beyond Germany’s ability to pay.

Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one super state, in an attempt to keep her economic potential to a minimum.

Map of Europe after the Paris Peace Conference (18 January, 1919 - 21 January, 1920).

The following treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (in absence of the affected countries):

 

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Use your knowledge of U.S. history and the political cartoon below to answer the following question.

After World War I, the opposition of some Members of Congress to the Versailles Treaty was based largely on the idea that the Treaty

A. did not punish the Central Powers harshly enough

B. did not give the United States an important role in world affairs

C. would require the United States to join the League of Nations and might result in a loss of United States sovereignty

D. would require the United States to assume the cost of rebuilding the war-torn European economies

 



3-The Roaring Twenties
 

Topic 6:   THE “ROARING TWENTIES”                                                                                                                                                      Pacing:  Traditional:  12 Days   Block: 6 Days 

Essential Questions:
How did the social, economic and political ideologies of the United States affect domestic and foreign policy during the 1920’s?
To what extent did U.S. economic foreign policy lead to prosperity at home and abroad?
How did the United States attempt to avoid future wars in the years following World War I?

To what extent did social conditions in the United States change during the 1920s?

Strand(s) and Standard(s)

STRAND(S) and STANDARD(S):

American History (Standard 1:  Use research and inquiry skills to analyze American history using primary and secondary sources; Standard 5:  Analyze the effects of the changing social, political, and economic conditions of the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression.)

Geography (Standard 1:  Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report information; Standard 2:  Understand physical and cultural characteristics of places; Standard 4:  Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations.)

Humanities (Standard 1:  Identify and analyze the historical, social, and cultural contexts of the arts; Standard 3:  Understand how transportation, trade, communication, science and technology influence the progression and regression of cultures.)

Content Benchmarks:

SS.912.A.5.1 Discuss the economic outcomes of demobilization.

SS.912.A.5.2 Explain the causes of the public reaction (Sacco and Vanzetti, labor, racial unrest) associated with the Red Scare.

SS.912.A.5.3 Examine the impact of United States foreign economic policy during the 1920s.

SS.912.A.5.4 Evaluate how the economic boom during the Roaring Twenties changed consumers, businesses, manufacturing, and marketing practices.

SS.912.A.5.5 Describe efforts by the United States and other world powers to avoid future wars.

SS.912.A.5.6 Analyze the influence that Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, the Fundamentalist movement, and prohibition had in changing American society in the 1920s.

SS.912.A.5.7 Examine the freedom movements that advocated civil rights for African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and women.

SS.912.A.5.8 Compare the views of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey relating to the African American experience.

SS.912.A.5.9 Explain why support for the Ku Klux Klan varied in the 1920s with respect to issues such as anti-immigration, anti-African American, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, anti-women, and anti-union ideas.

SS.912.A.5.10 Analyze support for and resistance to civil rights for women, African Americans, Native Americans, and other minorities.

Essential Content:

•RETURN TO ISOLATIONISM

•EFFECTS OF DEMOBILIZATION ON THE U.S. ECONOMY AFTER WORLD WAR I

•RETURN TO PRO-BUSINESS GOVERNMENT POLICIES

o    Return to Laissez-Faire Economics

o    Tax Cuts for the Wealthy

o    Less Government Regulation of Business

o    Limited Role for the Federal Government

o    Increased Protective Tariff Rates

o    Immigration Restrictions: The National Origins Quota Act

•ECONOMIC & POLITICAL OBJECTIVES UNDER THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENCIES OF HARDING, COOLIDGE, & HOOVER

o    Harding:  “Return to Normalcy”

o    Coolidge: “The Business of America is Business

o    Hoover:  “Rugged Individualism”

 •RETURN TO ISOLATIONISM & NEUTRALITY

•FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

•NAVAL DISARMAMENT

o    The Washington Conference

o    The Five-Power Treaty

o    The Nine-Power Treaty

•REPARATIONS WITH GERMANY

o    The Dawes Plan

o    The Young Plan

 •EFFORTS TO PROMOTE PEACE & COOPERATION

o    The Kellogg-Briand Pact

o    Latin America & the Clark Memorandum

o    Repudiation of the Roosevelt Corollary

• SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 1920’S

o    Conflict Between Modern & Conservative Values

o    Consumerism & Conformity

o    The Jazz Age

o    The Lost Generation of Writers & Novelists

o    Fear of Communism & The Red Scare

o    Prohibition

o    Nativism

o    Religious Fundamentalism

o    Changing Role of Women

o    African Americans & The Harlem Renaissance

o    The Great Migration

o    Organized Crime

o    Popular Forms of Entertainment

• FREEDOM MOVEMENTS & CIVIL RIGHTS (1919-1939)

o    African Americans

o    Latinos

o    Women

o    Asian Americans

o    Native Americans

COMPARISON OF VIEWS HELD BY AFRICAN-AMERICAN LEADERS ON CIVIL RIGHTS

o    Booker T. Washington

o    W.E.B. DuBois

o    Marcus Garvey

• RACISM & REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE KU KLUX KLAN

Content Focus:

Scapegoats, mass production, assembly line, consumerism, "rugged individualism", "Roaring Twenties," Jazz Age, Lost Generation, speakeasies, flappers, bootleggers, Harlem Renaissance, Red Scare, Scopes Monkey Trial, Prohibition, fundamentalism, laissez-faire, anarchists, Communists, Dawes Plan, demobilization, disarmament, flappers, Fordney-McCumber Act, impact of climate and natural disasters, Prohibition, Sacco & Vanzetti, tariffs, Teapot Dome Scandal, Four Power Treaty, Kellogg-Briand Pact, League of Nations, Neutrality Acts, Washington Naval Conference, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Booker T. Washington, Eighteenth Amendment, flappers, Fundamentalist Movement, Great Migration, Ku Klux Klan, Marcus Garvey, nativism, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Nineteenth Amendment, quota system, Rosewood Incident, Seminole Indians, Universal Negro Improvement Association, Volstead Act, W.E.B. DuBois, Palmer Raids

 

 


 

Free Videos

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The Roaring 20s...30 min
To Live in the 1920s...6 min
The Jazz Age...5 min
The Harlem Renaissance...6 min
The Prohibition...5 min
Fabulous Flappers...6 min
Booker T. v. W.E.B. DuBois...4 min
Booker T v. WEB DuBois (2)...6 min
First Red Scare...2 min

Annenberg

The Twenties 

Crash Course

Women's Suffrage: Crash Course US History #31
The Roaring 20's: Crash Course US History #32

Study.com

The Roaring 20s (1920-1929)

The Century: America's Time

The Century, America's Time: Boom To Bust (1 of 3)
 

The Century, America's Time: Boom To Bust (2 of 3)
 

The Century, America's Time: Boom To Bust (3 of 3)

 

 


Timeline 1920-1929

1919 - 18th Amendment – outlaws purchase, sale, and transport of alcohol

1920 – 19th Amendment – women’s suffrage (right to vote)

1924 – Teapot Dome Scandal – exposes massive corruption in Harding Administration

1924 – Dawes Plan – ease war reparations on Germany

1925 Scopes Monkey Trial – popularizes debate over teaching evolution in schools – outlawed

1927 Charles Lindbergh – completes world’s first solo flight across Atlantic – seen as a hero

1927 – Sacco and Vanzetti – executed for murder; controversial because the were anarchists, politically motivated and unjustified

1929 Stock Market Crash – ‘Black Tuesday’ – launches Great Depression


Literature

The Great Gatsby, by 
Beautiful Days, by 
Flapper: A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity, and the Women Who Made America Modern, by 
Anything Goes: A Biography of the Roaring Twenties, by 
The Beautiful and Damned, by 
Dollface: A Novel of the Roaring Twenties, by 
Miss Anne in Harlem: The White Women of the Black Renaissance, by 
Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition, by 
Bootleg: Murder, Moonshine, and the Lawless Years of Prohibition, by 
P
rohibition: Thirteen Years That Changed America, by 
Mr. Capone, by 
The Bootleggers: The Story of Chicago's Prohibition Era, by 
The Thin Man, by 
Manhattan Transfer, 1925, by John Dos Passos

William Faulkner (1897-1962)
Soldiers’ Pay, 1926
Mosquitoes, 1927
Sartoris, 1929
The Sound and the Fury, 1929

Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953)
The First Man, 1922
The Hairy Ape, 1922
The Fountain, 1923
All God's Chillun Got Wings, 1924
Welded, 1924
Desire Under the Elms, 1925
The Great God Brown, 1926
Strange Interlude, 1928
Dynamo, 1929

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
(1923) Three Stories and Ten Poems
(1925) In Our Time
(1926) The Torrents of Spring
(1926) 
The Sun Also Rises
(1927) 
Men Without Women
 (1929) A Farewell to Arms

"Lost Generation": The generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein.  This generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque. "Lost" means not vanished but disoriented, wandering, directionless — a recognition that there was great confusion and aimlessness among the war's survivors in the early post-war years.


Presidential Election of 1920


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Warren Harding Calvin Coolidge Republican 16,166,126 60.35% 404 76.1%
James Cox Franklin Roosevelt Democratic 9,140,256 34.12% 127 23.9%
Eugene Debs Seymour Stedman Socialist 914,191 3.41% 0 0.0%
Parley Christiansen Maximilian Hayes Farmer-Labor 265,395 0.99% 0 0.0%
Aaron Watkins David Colvin Prohibition 188,709 0.70% 0 0.0%
Y Other (+) -   113,548 0.42% 0 0.0%
  Total

26,788,225

531

THE CONSERVATIVE PRESIDENTS:

1-President HARDING (1921-24)

Domestic Policy: Corruption, Protectionism, Anti-Immigration, Pro-Business

Foreign Policy: Preserve Peace


Presidential Election of 1924


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Calvin Coolidge Charles Dawes Republican 15,719,068 54.03% 382 71.9%
John Davis Charles Bryan Democratic 8,384,341 28.82% 136 25.6%
Robert LaFollette Burton Wheeler Progressive 4,833,821 16.62% 13 2.4%
Y Other (+) -   155,394 0.53% 0 0.0%
  Total 29,092,624 531

2-President COOLIDGE (1925-28)

Domestic Policy: Order & Confidence, Pro-Business, Anti-Immigration

Foreign Policy: Preserve Peace


Presidential Election of 1928


 
Presidential
Candidate
Vice Presidential
Candidate
Political
Party
Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Herbert Hoover Charles Curtis Republican 21,428,584 58.22% 444 83.6%
Alfred Smith Joseph Robinson Democratic 15,015,863 40.79% 87 16.4%
Norman Thomas James Maurer Socialist 267,519 0.73% 0 0.0%
Y Other (+) -   96,995 0.26% 0 0.0%
  Total

36,808,961

531

3-President HOOVER (1929-32)

Domestic Policy: "Rugged Individualism"

Foreign Policy: Good Neighbor Policy


Vocabulary

"Roaring Twenties": A period of sustained economic prosperity. A term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, characterizing the decade's distinctive cultural edge.  Jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, and Art Deco peaked. Economically, the era saw the large-scale diffusion and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, and electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home team and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic stadiums. In most major countries women won the right to vote for the first time.

Jazz Age: When jazz music and dance became popular. Jazz played a significant part in wider cultural changes during the period, and its influence on pop culture continued long afterwards. Jazz music originated mainly in New Orleans, and is/was a fusion of African and European music. The Jazz Age is often referred to in conjunction with the phenomenon referred to as the Roaring Twenties. The term "Jazz Age" was coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

Harlem Renaissance: A cultural movement that spanned the 1920s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration (African American), of which Harlem was the largest. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, in addition, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance.

1st. Red Scare: The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century of the United States marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism. At its height in 1919–1920, concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and the alleged spread of communism and anarchism in the American labor movement fueled a general sense of paranoia.

Lost Generation: It was the generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron. In literature this generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque.

Emergency Quota Act (1921): It restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy" because it added two new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration from Europe and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits. It was intended to reduce the number of immigrants coming from Italy, Russia, Greece, etc that were consider inferior races.

Immigration Act of 1924: A federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting immigration of Southern Europeans, Eastern Europeans, and Jews, in addition to prohibiting the immigration of Arabs, East Asians, and Indians.

Anarchists: Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful.

Communism (1917-1991): Communism is a socioeconomic system structured upon common ownership of the means of production and characterized by the absence of classes, money, and the state; as well as a social, political and economic ideology and movement that aims to establish this social order. The movement to develop communism, in its Marxist–Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the communist states in the Eastern bloc and the most developed capitalist states of the Western world. The first communist country was the Soviet Union (former Russia) that adopted it as part of the revolution that happened during the WW I. Many countries, including the US, fear that its ideas could affect them or could be brought by Russian immigrants. See Red scare.

Scapegoats: The practice of singling out any party for unmerited negative treatment or blame as a scapegoat. Scapegoating may be conducted by individuals against individuals (e.g. "he did it, not me!"), individuals against groups (e.g., "I failed because our school favors girls"), groups against individuals (e.g., "Jane was the reason our team didn't win"), and groups against groups (e.g., "Immigrants are taking all of the jobs"). During the 1920's immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe were blame and accused of many things. Some believed that Saco & Vanzetti were used as scapegoats

Palmer Raids: The Palmer Raids were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to Palmer's methods. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.

18th. Amendment (1920) It effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport and sale of (though not the consumption or private possession of) alcohol illegal. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition.

Prohibition: A nationwide Constitutional ban on the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages that remained in place from 1920 to 1933. It was promoted by "dry" crusaders movement, led by rural Protestants and social Progressives in the Democratic and Republican parties, and was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Prohibition was mandated under the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. For example, religious uses of wine were allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol was not made illegal under federal law; however, in many areas local laws were more strict, with some states banning possession outright. Nationwide Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment, on December 5, 1933.

Volstead Act: While the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the production, sale, and transport of "intoxicating liquors", it did not define "intoxicating liquors" or provide penalties. It granted both the federal government and the states the power to enforce the ban by "appropriate legislation." 

Speakeasies: A speakeasy, also called a blind pig or blind tiger, is an establishment that illegally sells alcohol. Such establishments came into prominence in the United States during the Prohibition era (1920–1933, longer in some states).

Bootleggers: Rum-running, or bootlegging, is the illegal business of transporting (smuggling) alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law. Smuggling is usually done to circumvent taxation or prohibition laws within a particular jurisdiction.

Mafia: A type of organized crime syndicate that primarily practices protection racketeering — the use of violent intimidation to manipulate local economic activity, especially illicit trade; secondary activities may be practiced such as drug-trafficking, loan sharking and fraud. Being bonded together by a code of honor, in particular the code of silence, safeguards the Mafia from outside intrusion and law enforcement action. The Mafia emerged in New York's Lower East Side, Chicago, other areas of the East Coast of the United States, and several other major metropolitan areas (such as New Orleans) during the late 19th century and early 20th Century following waves of Italian immigration, especially from Sicily. It flourished in the US during the Prohibition.

Hoodlum: Killer

Gangster: Member of a criminal organization.

Flappers: A "new breed" of young Western women in the 1920s who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles, and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms. Flappers had their origins in the liberal period of the Roaring Twenties, the social, political turbulence and increased transatlantic cultural exchange that followed the end of World War I, as well as the export of American jazz culture to Europe.

Nineteenth Amendment (1920): The 19th. Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex (Right to Vote for Women). It was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910s most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote.

Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (1919): A women organization created  to unite women worldwide who oppose oppression and exploitation. WILPF has national sections in 37 countries. The first WILPF president was Jane Addams.

Fad: Any form of behavior that develops among a large population and is collectively followed enthusiastically for a period of time, generally as a result of the behavior being perceived as popular by one's peers or being deemed "cool" by social media.

Scopes Monkey Trial (1925): The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes