Best Websites

Philosophy Portal

Timeline of Philosophers

History of Philosophy

Philosophy Pages

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

History of Philosophy  by William Turner (1871-1936), at Notre Dame Univ.

History of Philosophy by Prof Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State Univ.

Philosophy Games and Activities



Articles (Reading Assignment) &




Videos on Philosophy at YouTube (Free)

1-What is Philosophy?
2-The History of Western Philosophy in under 5 Minutes
3-Three Minute Philosophy (Pythagoras, Aristotle, Aquinas, Galileo and Descartes). Very Funny cartoons but some profanity.
4-Carl Sagan on the pre-Socratic philosophers
(2 Parts)
5-The Pre-Socratic Philosophers
6-Unsung Philosophers: Diogenes
7-Epicurus on Happiness (3 Parts)
8-History of Stoicism Documentary
9-Skepticism (Phil101)

10-Anthony Kenny on Medieval Philosophy
11-Biography of St.. Augustine
12-Introduction to Thomas Aquinas (2 Parts)
13-Occam's Razor
14-Italian Renaissance and Protestant Reformation
15-Bernard Williams on Descartes (3 Parts)
16-Hobbes Social Contract
17-Anthony Quinton on Spinoza and Leibniz (4 Parts)
18-Michael Ayers on Locke and Berkeley (4 Parts)
19-David Hume and his Theory of Knowledge (BBC)
20-OpenLearn: History Unit -- The Enlightenment #1 (5 Parts)
21-Immanuel Kant: The Great Synthesizer
22-Frederick Copleston on Schopenhauer (5 Parts)
23-Peter Singer on Hegel and Marx (4 Parts)
24-Close Up – Existentialism:
25-Human, All Too Human (BBC) - Friedrich Nietzsche
26-Consequentalist Theory: Egoism & Utilitarianism
27-Great Transcendentalists

29-American Philosophy?
30-Noam Chomsky - Noam vs. Michel Foucault

31-Analytic Philosophy
32-Bertrand Russell, BBC (3 Parts)
Are You a Feminist? Pt.1

34-Giants of Philosophy Series (only audio)
35-The Mark Steel Lectures

Videos at the Annenberg Foundation (Learner. com)

The Western Tradition: Greek Thought

Bridging World History: Ideas that Changed the World (Enlightenment)

Video Series: The Great Ideas of Philosophy (Great Courses / The Teaching Company): Lectures



Philosophical Films

Lifeboat (1944)...1:37...Tallulah Bankhead and John Hodiak. Moral values / Ethics, Human nature
It's a Wonderful Life (1946)...2:10...James Stewart, Donna Reed and Lionel Barrymore Existence / Nature and meaning of life
The Razor's Edge (1946)...2:25...Tyrone Power, Gene Tierney and John Payne. Meaning of life
Blade Runner (1982)...1:57...Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer and Sean Young. Personal identity, Meaning of being human

Dead Poets Society (1989)...2:08...Robin Williams, Robert Sean Leonard and Ethan Hawke

Truth, Education
Beauty and the Beast (1991)...1:24...Paige O'Hara, Robby Benson, Richard White Aesthetics / Beauty, Moral Values, Human Nature
Groundhog Day (1993)...1:41...Bill Murray, Andie MacDowell and Chris Elliott. Free will, fate
Leaving Las Vegas (1995)...1:51...Nicolas Cage and Elisabeth Shue. Meaning of life, Existentialism
Phenomenon (1996)...2:03..John Travolta, Kyra Sedgwick and Forest Whitaker. Skepticism, Relativism
Birdcage (1996)...1:57...Robin Williams, Nathan Lane and Gene Hackman. Sexuality, Existence, Human nature, Moral values, Prejudice
Gattaca (1997)...1:46...Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law. Free will, Morality of genetic engineering, Law / Justice
Patch Adams (1998)...1:55...Robin Williams, Daniel London and Monica Potter Humanity, Compassion, Professionalism
The Matrix (1999)...2:16...Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne and Carrie-Anne Moss Knowledge, Truth, Appearance vs. Reality, Manipulation
Bicentennial Man (1999)...2:12...Robin Williams, Embeth Davidtz and Sam Neill Existence / Nature of life, Love, Meaning of being human, Prejudice
In the Beginning (2000)...3:09...Martin Landau, Jacqueline Bisset and Billy Campbell Existence, Origin and Nature of Life, Causality.
Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter Jr. (2000)...1:31...Docum. Fred A. Leuchter Jr., Robert Jan Van Pelt and David Irving. Death, Capital Punishment
The Family Man (2000)...2:05...Nicolas Cage, Téa Leoni and Don Cheadle. Personal identity, Feelings, Second chance, Values
Evolution (2001)...8:00...Documentary...Liam Neeson. Existence, Origin and Nature of Life, Causality.
Artificial Intelligence (2001)...2:26...Haley Joel Osment, Jude Law and Frances O'Connor Existence / Nature of life, Love, Meaning of being human, Prejudice, Morality of Artificial Intelligence
Memento (2001)...1:53...Guy Pearce, Carrie-Anne Moss and Joe Pantoliano Personal identity, Morality, Truth, Knowledge
The Emperor's Club (2002)...1:48...Kevin Kline, Emile Hirsch and Joel Gretsch Morality, Honesty, Truth, Virtue
Minority Report (2002)...2:25...Tom Cruise, Colin Farrell and Samantha Morton Determinism, Free will, Law / Crime / Justice, Political power
The Life of David Gale (2003)...2:10...Kevin Spacey, Kate Winslet and Laura Linney Death Penalty, Honesty, Meaning of life, Law / Justice
The Village (2004)...1:48...Sigourney Weaver, William Hurt and Joaquin Phoenix Ethics, Manipulation, Knowledge, Truth,
The Corporation (2004)...2:25...Docum. Mikela J. Mikael, Rob Beckwermert and Christopher Gora Ethics, Power, Responsibility, Greed,
The Sea Inside (2004)...2:05...Javier Bardem, Belén Rueda and Lola Dueñas. Right to Die, Meaning of Life.
The Island (2005)...2:16...Scarlett Johansson and Ewan McGregor. Morality of Cloning, Meaning of Life, Human Nature
Education of Shelby Knox (2005)...1:16...Rene Caudillo, Yvonne Caudillo and Shelby Knox Sexual Morality, Education, Social Values
Surrogates (2009)...1:29...Bruce Willis, Radha Mitchell and Ving Rhames Existence / Nature and meaning of life, Power, Society
In Time (2011)...1:49...Justin Timberlake, Amanda Seyfried and Cillian Murphy Eternal life, Equality, Ethics, Science and Society



World Religions

Best Websites

Patheos (Religion Portal)

Religion Facts & Big Religion Chart

Major Religions  in Wikipedia (Info, Maps & Statistics)

God Web: Religions of the World

Internet Sacred Texts Archive (Texts, Timelines, Origins, etc)

Handbook of Today's Religions

Reference Desk: World Religions Resources

Major Religions Ranked by Adherents (Statistics)

Religions of Today's World (Statistics: Population & Religious People by Continents)



Articles on Religion (Reading Assignment)





Videos on Religion

1- YouTube

2-Bridging World History



Films for Religious Studies & Comparative Religions


1.      Black Narcissus (1947): This film was way ahead of its time. Its psychological probing of a missionary convent of Anglican nuns in the Himalayas captures a shelf full of books on colonialism and religion.

2.      Flowers of St. Francis (1950): The film dramatizes about a dozen vignettes from the life of St. Francis and his early followers - starting with their return in the rain to Rivotorlo from Rome when the Pope blessed their Rule and ending with their dispersal to preach.

3.      Diary of a Country Priest (1951): It is hard to pick just one Bresson film for such a list, but this looks at asceticism, Catholic doctrine, and liturgy is an essential document of Christian piety.

4.      The Burmese Harp (1956): This story about the unexpected conversion of a Japanese soldier at the end of WW II to monastic Buddhism is as wonderfully composed as it is enlightening. It is a fine film about trauma, death, and the way religion offers ritual structures for hope and healing.

5.      The Seventh Seal (1957): A man seeks answers about life, death, and the existence of God as he plays chess against the Grim Reaper during the Black Plague. This film is representative of Bergman’s post-Lutheran take on theodicy, hierophany, and the boundaries of Christian art and language.

6.      Nazarin (1959): Is charity a legitimate spiritual discipline? Nazarin is one of several films in which we find Buñuel interrogating some of the fundamentals of Catholic piety. It is an excellent introduction to theological analyses of institutional Christianity that even just now has become part of academic discourse.

7.      Devi (1960): Ray’s acrobatic riff on Kali mythology and worship in Hinduism caused a bit of a stir, but to this day remains a classic study of the way we appropriate mythical narratives.

8.      King of Kings (1961): The life of Jesus.

9.      Winter Light (1963): On a cold winter's Sunday, the pastor of a small rural church (Tomas Ericsson) performs service for a tiny congregation; though he is suffering from a cold and a severe crisis of faith...

10.  Lilies of the Field (1963): This unexpectedly nuanced interplay between boot-strapping Baptist Protestantism and German nun Catholicism is a vivid document of religion, race, and society in America.

11.  The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964): The life of Jesus Christ according to the Gospel of Matthew. Pasolini shows Christ as a Marxist avant-la-lettre and therefore uses half of the text of Matthew.

12.   Andrei Rublev (1966): This challenging film tracks a Russian Orthodox iconographer through the turbulent history of Russia, suggesting some complicated things about religion and history along the way. It is a virtual treasury of thoughts on iconography, politics, and religion.

13.  Walkabout (1971): Two young children are stranded in the Australian outback and are forced to cope on their own. They meet an Aborigine on "walkabout": a ritualistic separation from his tribe. This is an intensely and academically religious film in the way it juxtaposes various rites of Western and Aboriginal passage.

14.  Brother Sun, Sister Moon (1972): This tricky biography of St. Francis of Assisi makes reference to American countercultural movements in the 1960s. The ideas it composes about how religion and social movements interact make for compelling conversation.

15.  Faith, Hope, and Charity (1973): This Mexican film compiles three stories. The film shows different aspects of the human nature in its relationship with religion. The first part, "Fe" (faith), is the story of a woman who travels to a distant town seeking a miracle to save her husband from disease. The second story, "Esperanza" (Hope), concerns a man who consents to be nailed to a cross as part of "Jesus Christ" freak show, hoping to help his mother. The final story, "Caridad" (Charity) a humble woman faces a lack of charity from those in authority.

16.  Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti (1977): The contribution of Maya Deren to ethnographic cinema on religion can’t be overlooked. This is a seminal look at religious ritual in Haiti.

17.  The Last Wave (1977): A Sydney lawyer defends five Aborigines in a ritualized taboo murder and in the process learns disturbing things about himself.

18.  The Chosen (1981): This is one of the finest depictions of the nuances of Conservative and Orthodox Judaism during a time when Zionism threatened to redefine both. Its gentle evocation of Hasidism and Talmudic thinking in mid-century Brooklyn is timeless.

19.  Peter and Paul (1981): This account of the apostles Peter and Paul in the wake of Jesus’ death, resurrection, and ascension is a largely accurate depiction of key moments in early Christianity.

20.  Gandhi (1982): There aren’t many bearable biopics of religious figures out there, but scattered about this compelling look at Gandhi’s life are rabbit trails on religion and state issues, Hindu/Islam relations, and the way religion and class co-exist.

21.  Yellow Earth (1984): It is hard to track down Chinese cinema that deals specifically with religion and ritual, but this story about a communist soldier scouring rural China for morale boosting folk songs turns towards nature and the sacred.

22.  Agnes of God (1985): When a naive novice nun is discovered with a dead newborn in her convent quarters, a court appointed psychiatrist investigates her case.

23.  Four Days In July (1985): A catholic and a protestant couple in Northern Ireland have amazing parallels in their lives, despite being either side of the divide.

24.  . The Mission (1986): 18th century Spanish Jesuits try to protect a remote South American Indian tribe in danger of falling under the rule of pro-slavery Portugal.

25.  Where is the Friend’s Home? (1987): This is one in a series of several Kiarostami films that show us some of the basic religious beliefs of rural Iran in guileless vignettes of duty and kindness.

26.  Yeelen (1987): This classic look at native Malian myth and legend is challenging and obscure, but is a wonderful exercise in the true rigors of myth.

27.   Babette’s Feast (1988): This acclaimed meditation on grace is an entrancing look at Lutheran piety, grace, and the sacrament of generosity.

28.  The Serpent and the Rainbow (1988): An anthropologist goes to Haiti after hearing rumors about a drug used by black magic practitioners to turn people into zombies.

29.  The Mahabharata (1989): This lengthy presentation of a central sacred texts digs deep into the mythology and cosmology of Hinduism.

30.  Why Has Bodhi-Dharma Left for the East? (1989): This Korean Buddhist film follows the lives of three Buddhist monks at different stages of their life. After passing through points of Seon Buddhist theology and ritual, it closes with a package of visual koans.

31.  Close-Up (1990): This memorable glimpse of Islamic judicial practice in Iran is one of the great ethnographic documents produced by the Iranian New Wave. Its reflections on mercy and justice as navigated by this Iranian court of law provide an uncommon glimpse into the rationale of certain Muslim social policies.

32.  The Rapture (1991): A telephone operator living an empty, amoral life finds God and loses him again. The problem of evil.

33.  Malcolm X (1992): A controversial film, to be sure, but it is also a good introduction to the Nation of Islam and its relationship to Islam in general.

34.  City of Joy (1992): Max, a young, disillusioned physician, goes to India on a personal quest for meaning. He finds appalling poverty and caste system prejudice.

35.  The Joy Luck Club (1993): The life histories of four Asian women and their daughters reflect and guide each other.  This film ranges widely across immigrant narratives, forgotten rituals, and engaging historical vignettes. It is an effective meditation on the way religious identities are diffused across generations.

36.  Little Buddha (1994): Lama Norbu comes to Seattle in search of the reincarnation of his dead teacher, Lama Dorje. Story about the life of Buddha.

37.  Powder (1995): A young bald albino boy with unique powers shakes up the rural community he lives in. Messages: Everything is connected, God’s purpose, death.

38.  The Apostle (1997): A frighteningly realistic portrayal of Pentecostal preaching and fellowship that embraces its ambiguous Southern Gothic take on fundamentalist Christianity.

39.  Kundun (1997): This film may be bit affected by what Donald Richie came to call “orientalism,” but it is the most even handed and eloquent of the Dalai Lama biopics regardless.

40.  Taste of Cherry (1997): A man driving a taxi through Tehran argues with Kurdish, Afghani, and Persian passengers about whether he should commit suicide or not. In the meantime, we become privy to the nuances of modern Islamic thinking about life and death.

41.  Princess Mononoke (1997): On a journey to find the cure for a Tatarigami's curse, Ashitaka finds himself in the middle of a war between the forest gods and Tatara, a mining colony. In this quest he also meets San, the Mononoke Hime. This is a moving depiction of Kami and the Shinto worldview.

42.  The Book of Life (1998): The end of the millenium has taken on a certain significance in modern day prophecies. What happens if Jesus Christ has second thoughts about the Apocalypse?

43.  The Cup (1999): A charming look at Tibetan Buddhism and globalism that refers in detail to the particulars of Buddhist monasticism and their relevance to a media saturated world.

44.  Himalaya (1999): Tibetan Lamaism. Sky burial rites. This nicely composed film shot with non-professional Tibetans works well as a glimpse of traditional Tibetan religious practice.

45.  Stigmata (1999) A young Jesuit priest, whose degree in chemistry makes him a sort of priest / detective, investigates weeping Mary and the like around the world. Meanwhile, Frankie, a rave-generation Pittsburgher, is afflicted with the stigmata--holes that appear in her wrists, resembling the wounds of Christ. The young woman's symptoms filter back to the Vatican and Father Kiernan is assigned to the case.

46.  Kadosh (1999): This film offers a challenging glimpse into the structure of ultra-orthodox Jewish culture. Its commentary on gender, sectarianism, and what some refer to as Haredic Judaism makes The Chosen look sanguine.

47.  The Third Miracle (1999): The Vatican sends a priest to verify some miracles, performed by a woman who has been nominated for sainthood.

48.  Islam: Empire of Faith (2000): PBS documentary about the history of Islam.

49.  The Body (2001): A crucified body dated back to the 1st century A.D is uncovered at an ancient cave in Jerusalem. Trouble ensues as word spreads.

50.  A Question of Faith (2001): What would you do if you came face to face with a miracle? In the heart of California wine country lies a monastery where centuries-old traditions of ritual, discipline and solitude create a timeless serenity--until one dazzling moment changes everything. A member of the order experiences a miraculous encounter with implications that are both stunning and uplifting. As the community struggles with the ramifications, long-buried conflicts begin to surface. Soon, the Brothers are forced to grapple with the fundamental tension between faith and reason, but their lives will never be the same again.

51.  Devil’s Playground (2002): Amish teenagers experience and embrace the modern world as a rite-of-passage before deciding which life they will choose.

52.  Luther (2003): During the early 16th Century idealistic German monk Martin Luther, disgusted by the materialism in the church, begins the dialogue that will lead to the Protestant Reformation.

53.  Osama (2003): Rifling through issues related to gender and religion and just war theory, Osama is one of few films that have been able to film Taliban-era Afghanistan on location. Its casual references to many local rituals and rites of passage compliment the film’s sympathetic appeal to realism.

54.  Monsieur Ibrahim (2003): An aging Muslim Turk takes an abandoned Jewish boy under his wing in an immigrant-class Paris arrondissement. Their compelling journey across the EU is peppered with little comparative religious nuggets.

55.  Spring, Summer, Winter, Fall, and Spring (2003): This South Korean film about a Buddhist monk and his protégé cycles provocatively through life, sacred space, and the essence of Zen Buddhist thought.

56.   Exiles (2004): This film tracks the cultural and spiritual journey of two second generation French immigrants to Algeria. It ends with an explosion of Algerian Muslim ritual and custom that causes us to think about the role of religion in the increasingly diverse EU.

57.  Moolade (2004): This acclaimed look at the rite of female circumcision in Burkina Faso as a purity ritual is both timely and articulate.

58.  The Passion of the Christ (2004): This controversial film is in its very essence a religious document. It is hard to find a better contemporary access point to discussions about the sacramental nature of Catholic art and piety.

59.  Mary (2005): This film is a great introduction to non-canonical Christian gospel texts, and the increasing influence early Gnostic thought has had on Western spirituality. Its meditation on the lingering impact of the Historical Jesus is unparalleled in world cinema.

60.  Into Great Silence (2005): An examination of life inside the Grande Chartreuse, the head monastery of the reclusive Carthusian Order in France.

61.  Silent Light (2007): This film tracks a crisis of faith in an obscure Russian Mennonite community in Mexico. While a seamlessly biblical meditation on sin, desire, and tragedy, it is filled with the ritual details of this sect’s daily routine.

62.  Youth Without Youth (2007): A love story wrapped in a mystery. Set in Europe before WWII, a timid professor is changed by a cataclysmic event and explores the mysteries of life.

63.  Religulous  (2008): This show makes a pilgrimage across the globe with political humorist and author Bill Maher as he opens our mind to the ultimate taboo: questioning religion. Known for his astute analytical skills, irreverent wit and commitment to never pulling a punch, Maher brings his characteristic honesty and skepticism to an unusual religious journey.

64.   A Serious Man (2009): This period film about mid-western, mid-century Judaism deftly navigates Jewish language, literature, and myth. It is further confounded by the mysterium tremendum of hierophany.

65.  Agora (2009): A historical drama set in Roman Egypt, concerning a slave who turns to the rising tide of Christianity in the hopes of pursuing freedom while also falling in love with his master, the famous female philosophy and mathematics professor Hypatia of Alexandria.

66.  The Pillars of the Earth (2010): The Catholic church of the Middle Ages, the first cathedrals. Set against a backdrop of war, religious strife and power struggles which tears lives and families apart.